1.1 Background to the Study
Biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many field of studies that covered their morphology, physiology, anatomy biochemistry, behaviour, evolution and distribution. Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structures, functions, growth, classification, identification etc. biology occupies a unique position in the school sciences such as medicines, pharmacy, agriculture, genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, physiology, neurology, parasitology, zoology and otherwise.
It is obvious that no student intending to study these discipline can do without having deep understanding of biology. These factors amongst others have drown the attention of researchers and curriculum planners towards biology as a subject in the school curriculum (Kareem, 2003).
Inspite of the importance and population of biology amongst Nigerian students, the performance at senior secondary school level had been persistently poor (Ahad, 2009). The desire of know the cause of poor performance in the sciences especially in biology has been a major focus by researchers for quite sometimes now.
It has been observed that poor performance in sciences is basically caused by the poor quality of science teachers, inappropriateness of teaching models, overcrowded classrooms, lack of suitable and adequate science equipment amongst others. (Bajah, 2007, Abdullahi, 2008, and Kareem, 2012): students perform poorly in sciences especially in Biology because of wrong teaching strategies. In view of the foregoing, it would be observed that, schools are not only established to equip learners with the basic knowledge of biology contents but also for the practical skills needed for enhancing self-development and actualization.
The implication of this is that, Biology teaching must be made effective by employing different teaching strategies or models that would enhance high academic performance in biology. The Nigerian Teacher’s Institute (NTI, 2008), it was observed that conventional teaching strategies are teachers’ centered and Adeyemi, (2012), also commented that conventional teaching strategies are characterized by much emphasis on instructor rather than the learners as well as instructional materials and as such delayed feedback on students academic performance.
In order to facilitate the achievement of students in biology, the recent moves of information revolution and knowledge explosion technology have brought about changes in the educational system. Technology is utilized in enhancing instruction, thus shifting from teachers’ centered conventional strategies to student’s centered instructional strategies. To Ochoyi and Ukwumunu, (2008), the use and increasing growth of technology in classroom provides new opportunities for accurate delivery of instruction. Educators utilizing technology (Computer), as an instructional delivery has increased students academic performance in many developing and developed countries.
According to researchers, Ochoyi and Ukwumunu, (2008), utilizing and integration of computers into the classroom would be useful in pedagogy management and is an effective teaching strategy. Improving technology has brought great easiness together in every field ranging from military to industry, health to education. Especially, the development and prevalence of computer technology and usability for multipurpose aims, provides not only speed economy but also visual and sound opportunities.
Computers are being used as tools and method, effective for students in increasing the concentration on courses, understanding the lesson, synthesizing and improving positive thought for the causes. Computer being utilized as a teaching strategy would make the teaching of abstract concepts interesting because it has to do with visual materials. The result of supporting instructional materials with different sounds, images and simulations gives more lasting pleasurable and effective learning process.
The implication of this is that, the introduction as a science subject in the classroom would improve the students learning outcome. It has been commonly accepted and proven that. Information and communication technology is the engine of the 21st century and beyond as it would chart the economy of many countries to greater height.
Therefore, the integration of computers which is the major and most influential technology in the last millennium into education especially in the classroom would be beneficial in building students capacity in education and in technology.
It is very important the lesson better and improving attitude towards the lesson. In this days, it has been observed that visual students do pay accurate attention because it is interactive and as such, what students see (visual) stick more to the brain for a longtime than anything else.
This shows that instructional materials supported by sound, video, animation are more effective on students learning, perception and synthesizing of learning activities. It should be noted that, students are growing with visual tools like television, video, computer and internet this days, and perhaps, it is not possible to get these students interest by conventional teaching strategies because it is a traditional method of teaching but by modern technology. It is expected that, computer Assisted Instruction teaching strategies would be able to improve students’ academic performance in biology.
Finally, supporting instructional teaching strategies with visual aids, audio aids, would make learning permanent (brain retention), easier, pleasurable and effective in the teaching and learning process at the secondary school level. It is against this background that the study sought to find out the effects of computer Assisted Instruction on students academic performance in biology in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are different innovations that are being applied in the delivery of curriculum contents to students. Research evidences reveals that the use of computer Assisted Instruction would bring about improvement in students academic performance in science subjects like biology. It will also facilitate learning, enhance better towards learning of the subjects.
For many decades now, the academic performance of senior secondary school students in biology appears to be persistently poor. The desire to know the causes of poor performance in the sciences especially in biology has been a major concern of researchers in the recent time. A number of factors have been advanced as reasons for the poor performance, some of them include; inappropriateness of teaching models, overcrowded classrooms, lack of suitable and adequate science equipment etc. however the challenge of this study is therefore to investigate the effects of computer assisted instruction on students academic performance in biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction on students academic performance in biology as the main purpose. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to;
- determine the difference between the academic performance of students in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching
2 compare the differences that exist between male and female student’s academic performance in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching.
- determine the difference between students interest in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching.
1.4 Research Question
In order to give direction to the study, the following research questions were posed and answered in this study.
- What is the different between academic performance of students in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching?
- What different exist between male and female academic performance of students in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching?
- What differences exists between students’ interest in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching?
Based on the research questions formulated the following three null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant to guide this study.
H01 There is no significant different in the academic performance of students in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching.
H02 There is no significant different between the academic performance of male and female students in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching.
H03 There is no significant difference between students’ interest in biology when taught using computer assisted instruction and conventional method of teaching.
1.6 Significant of the Study
This research work will be beneficial to the following; Students as it expected to assists students to develop manipulation skills which would reinforce their comprehension of biology concepts, improve their overall performance in biology and other science related subjects. This research work will be also beneficial to curriculum planners/developers; as it would facilitate the necessary information and website for research purpose when planning and developing curriculum for students. This research work will be utmost beneficial to the ministry of education; the integration of computer assisted instruction would allow equity access to quality education for all. This research work will be also beneficial to teachers as it would also motivate teachers who are computer illiterate to strive and equip themselves with the knowledge of computer usage in the teaching and learning activities.
This research work will also be beneficial to biology Educators as it would provide computational biology for biology educators which are used in medical application in inducing therapeutic effects at the molecular and cellular levels for diagnosis of cancer and other ailment. It would be use for the delivery of difficult concepts in biology for easy understanding. It will also be beneficial to education policy makers; it would provide information on major educational Innovations, research projects and trends in countries at all stages of development before embarking in policy decision.
The result of this study when published by the researcher would guide the ministry of education, Federal and state government on whether to recommend computer assisted instruction for biology instruction and other science related subjects in Nigerian secondary schools. By the result of this study, the teachers will acknowledge the advantages of computer assisted teaching strategies over all the conventional methods of teaching.
The school authorities and stakeholders in Education will through the report of this study sees the needs for providing electricity in Nigerian secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study was defined within the frame of the research topic, effects of computer assisted instruction on students’ academic performance in biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study was limited to four public Secondary schools in Ukanafun and senior secondary biology students II (SSII) during 2017/2018 academic session.