Forming occupational safety culture on the basis of development of students’ risk-focused intellection

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Bologna process puts in a high claim for the modern European education in terms of competency building approach. The control is conducted by the agencies which monitor learning activity level in higher education institutions. This paper presents the aspects of higher education within the conduction of competency building approach projects in Europe and Russia. We propose the technology which evaluates students’ professional competence qualimetricly. The technology represents the evaluation algorithm at all levels of student training. OPEN ACCESS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION 6335 According to the statistics of the latest 5 years, at least a thousand rather large emergency situations of technogenic nature occur annually in the country caused by human factor (Podosenova, & Tskhadaya, 2013). Taking into account the current situation, under the contemporary conditions the issue of ensuring safety (ecological, road/transport, energy, production) remains a crucial governmental task, an integral part of the national security fixed in the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws (Federal Law No. 116-FZ, Federal Law No. 256FZ), Strategy of the National Security of the Russian Federation till 2020 (Decree of the President of the RF No. 537 ) Doctrine of Energy Security of the Russian Federation (approved by the Order of the President of the Russian Federation No. Pr-3167 of October 29, 2012), and other regulations. As a normative regulation to solve the above task on improvement of the level of operational safety of hazardous production facilities the Government of the Russian Federation in 2011 approved ‘Concept for Improvement of the State Policy in Industrial Safety Including the Need to Stimulate Innovative Activity of Enterprises till 2020’. The main focus in that document is made on the contemporary approach to ensure safe maintenance of HPF using so-called risk-focused approach. The system analysis of the existing and prognosticated risks and other advantages of the risk-focused approach a priori allow identifying problem areas of industrial safety processes in HPF which are missed by the current safety requirements due to their a posteriori nature, which will therefore allow improving the general level of safety of technological processes and production sites and decreasing the risk of emergency occurrence during their maintenance. For full-scale implementation of the new approach approved by the RF Government, specialists with new type of thinking – risk-focused – are required. In compliance with the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the RF No. 723 dated December 14, 2009 (valid till September 1, 2016, furthermore, the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the RF, identical to the extent studied herein, will be valid, dated March 21, 2016 No. 246 ‘On Approval of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Education under Training Area 20.03.01 Technosphere Safety’), a graduate, among other competencies, should possess general cultural competency OK-7 providing for knowing culture of safety and riskfocused intellection attitude which considers environmental safety and preservation the most important priorities in life and activity. Back in 1920s, the famous English philosopher A.N. Whitehead noted that development of new principles of studying greatly falls behind the societal development and that the main task of education system is to teach a man to think in a systematic way and to form the way of thinking allowing analyzing problems in any sphere of life. Creating thinking attitude capable to reveal new elements and come to unidentified generalizations in a continuously changing situation was considered the main purpose of the contemporary pedagogics by A.V. Brushlinskiy (Brushlinskiy, 1996). Most strictly the concept of the education system for the 21st century was worded by A. Urbanski (Urbanski, 1994), vice-president of American association of teachers: ‘On the basis of teaching, teaching the way of thinking will prevail’. The need to form risk-focused intellection in graduates urged us to begin the research in that area and, in particular, to develop the methodological basics of 6336 DOLININA & KUSHNARYOVA occupational safety culture based on risk-focused attitude of students in a polytechnic higher school. In various professional communities, the following typical contexts dominate in using ‘risk’ notion: − for economists, risk is an opportunity of an economically unfavorable event, uncertainty of decision-making: ‘dangers always are and risk is where a solution is’ (Luhmann, 1991), − for sociologists, risk is a synonym of dangers and threats for an individual or a society, model of perception and assessment of dangers by the mass consciousness in so-called ‘risk society’ (Beck, 1986), − for historians, risk is an antonym of historical dependency (Luhmann, 1991), − politicians call risks solely unwanted events and results in future (Luhmann, 1991), − for engineers, risk is a measure of hazard of beyond design basis emergency losses (RD 03-418-01 ‘Metodicheskie ukazaniya po provedeniyu analiza riska opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob”ektov’ [RD 03-418-01 ‘Methodological Guidelines on Risk Analysis of Hazardous Production Facilities’], 2001, July 10; Kates, & Kasperson, 1983). Inside professional communities, there are some discrepancies in interpretation of ‘risk’ notion, for instance, in technical staff: − in industrial safety (RD 03-418-01 ‘Methodological Guidelines on Risk Analysis of Hazardous Production Facilities), emergency risk is a measure of hazard characterizing the probability of emergency at a hazardous production facility and the severity of its effects; − in technical regulation (Federal Law No. 184-FZ), risk is the probability of damage to life or health of individuals or entities, state or municipal property, environment, life or health of animals and plants with due regard to severity of that damage; − in technical regulation of fire safety requirements (Federal Law No. 123-FZ), fire risk is the probability of fire hazard of the facility protected and its consequences for people and material property; virtually, probability here means statistical assessment of probability – frequency (Resolution of the Government of the RF No. 272 of March 31, 2009 ‘On Procedure of Settlements to Assess Fire Risk’) (Grazhdankin, 2012). Currently, ‘risk-focused intellection/attitude’ is mentioned rather seldom; it may be explained by non-formed theoretical basis of the risk-focused approach. GOST R ISO 9001-2015 (identical to ISO 9001:2015 ‘Quality Management Systems – Requirements’, IDT) interprets this notion in the risk management context: ‘risk-focused intellection allows an organization to identify the factors which may cause deviation from the scheduled results of the processes and system of quality management of the organization and use preventing control to minimize negative results and maximize the emerging opportunities’. Based on the adopted documents and research by Russian scholars, we opine that risk-focused attitude is an individual’s ability to identify any situation from the risk standpoint, to identify, analyze and assess a risk, readiness to affect a risk to ensure a positive outcome including occupational safety. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION 6337 Culture formation process in occupational safety continues through the whole life of a human (Belov, & Devisilov, 2005). In this research, targeted pedagogical process to change the personality is focused, including formation of risk-focused intellection/attitude of students. In the course of education a student should obtain view of the required components ensuring the basics, organizational steps and structure for development, implementation, monitoring, review and continuous improvement of occupational safety risk management in his/her profession. Formation is understood by us as a comprehensive pedagogical feasible process of a professional’s evolution comprising development, raising, education, socialization. Therefore, occupational safety culture formation based on risk management thinking of learners is a targeted process aimed at the acquisition of knowledge related to risks, acquisition of skills and expertise to affect risks and readiness to prevent safety risks, assume responsibility and liabilities, derive benefit from risks. The selected definition is rather valuable as it enabled to identify deep specifics of the methodology and conditions of occupational safety culture of learners. Targeting, as we opine, is the most important component pre-determining the fact of the existence of the system. Targeting has two organically interrelated elements: global societal target (state social mandate – according to V.P. Bespalko) and indirect social mandate being an exact target of the operation of the pedagogical system. The target of society, state and social mandate is the need for specialists capable to take part in control of comprehensive technical systems and solve production-related tasks with due regard to the need for preservation of the natural environment, interests and concerns of the society. The target of the research issue and the pedagogical system to be constructed is formation of occupational safety culture based on risk-focused intellection of learners and respectively arranged processes of the pedagogical system aimed to achieve it. The objects of the research were educational and training environment of PNRPU, namely, professional education, re-training, in-service education, offclass activities. The subject of the research was the process to form occupational safety culture based on risk-focused intellection. The research was divided into three stages.