1.1 Background to Study Many nations adopted the English language as a result of colonialism and other circumstances. English had been the language of commerce, interaction, and missionary endeavor as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, utilize it as a national and international communication tool. The English language is used as a medium of education in these geographical areas, from elementary school to post secondary level. English is the most widely spoken language on the planet, with more speakers than any other.
A teacher’s influence on the school atmosphere, as well as the resources he or she employs to make a point, is enormous. If academic greatness is to be realized in our educational institution, these resources employed by the instructor have a substantial impact that cannot be ignored with a wave of the hand. The importance of using instructional materials in order to attain these educational aims cannot be overstated.
The term “instructional materials” refers to resources that help instructors make lessons more plain to students. They also provide learners with information, ideas, and notes. Instructional materials, according to Ijaduola & ALmarouf (1997), Aina & Ajani (1982), are materials or resources utilized in any teaching activity to encourage improved knowledge of the learning experience. They are utilized to provide the most rich learning environment possible, assisting both the instructor and the students in achieving specified goals. They also help instructors communicate more effectively with their students, allowing them to learn more meaningfully and permanently. Teaching resources, as defined by Ogunsanya &Omolakin (1984), are anything that aids the instructor in promoting teaching and learning activities.
Kay and Alfred (1981), who share the aforementioned viewpoint, describe instructional resources as “items that are meant to assist the instructor teach more successfully or, better yet, to allow the students to learn more readily.” Many educational technologists, according to Ajelabi Vania (2000) and Akinlaye Opeyomi (1997), see instructional materials as technologies and resources utilized in the classroom to augment written or spoken words in the transfer of knowledge, attitude, ideas, concepts, and values. Thy have been characterized as items or objects brought into play to accentuate, clarify, reinforce, and vitalize the instructors lesson, according to Akinlaye Opeyoomi (1997). Ajelabi Vania, (2000) defines instructional materials as teaching-learning resources that are used in imparting educational information to the student and are an intrinsic part of the classroom instructional process. He goes on to say that it makes the lessons more real, tangible, and powerful. Learners are encouraged to study at their own speed, at their own rate, and at their own convenience. Since its introduction to Nigeria, the English language has taken on a variety of responsibilities, particularly in the educational arena. In education, the English language is broken down into many sections, including orals, lexis and structure, comprehension, and essays. It is a vital topic that must be credited in order to be admitted to a postsecondary institution. The significance of this topic necessitates the usage of instructional materials for optimal learning. Visual aids, according to Macaulay and Ajelabi (1989), bring lessons to life and help pupils learn more effectively. He goes on to say that having a lot of visual and general teaching resources is a sign that the instructors are ready for the session. Ehizojie Osaze (1989) elaborates on the significance of instructional materials. “Using audio-visual and other teaching aids is one of the methods to relax in the classroom environment, motivate students, and teach English in a creative and dynamic manner.” This is because well-chosen/well-planned and produced audio-visuals:
– pique learners’ interest;
– stoke imagination;
– encourage active participation and involvement in a lesson; – aid memory and recall; – connect learning to real-life situations;
– can remain in view for as long as the teacher desires.
Instructional materials should be concept-centered, activity-based, and work-related, according to the National Policy on Education (1998 updated).
Pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, and computers are examples of visual and audiovisual instructional resources. These products are meant to augment the traditional teaching methods.
1.2 Statement of ProblemsTeaching is basically about transmitting ideas, abilities, and attitudes from the instructor to the student. In Nigeria, for example, experience has shown that spoken words alone are severely inadequate and inefficient for communicating concepts and achieving desired learning results. Each year, when the results of public examinations are revealed, there is always a large percentage of students who fail the English language. Certain aspects of the English language, particularly poetry and grammar, present pupils with understanding difficulties. Without teaching tools, they cannot be taught successfully.
Mutebi and Matora (1994) confirmed that we retain 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we debate with others, and up to 80% of what we personally experience or do. This viewpoint is bolstered by the often cited ancient Chinese deduction.
I forget what I hear.
I recall what I saw.
I am aware of what I do.