ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH HAWKED SUYA MEAT

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ABSTRACT

This project work is carried at the isolation and characterization of pathogenic bacteria from hawked suya meat, were bought in full from the sellers and was collected in raps of aluminum foil. A total of twenty (20) “suya” samples (roasted meat product) were collected from five (5) different retail outlet namely: Yelwa, Government Reserve Area, Bayangari, Railway and Mudalawal Motor Park within Bauchi metropolis; Ten (10) samples were spiced and ten (10) others were unspiced. Bacteriological analysis was carried out on the samples for isolation and identification of bacteria associated with such meat products as well total aerobic plate count. Fourteen (14) specie of bacteria which are of public health importance were isolated and identified. The percentage of occurrences of bacteria isolates was highest for Bacillus cereus with 19.6%, 12.5% for Staphylococcus aureus, 10.7% for Escherichia coli, 7.1% for Bacillus alvis, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus faecalis, then 5.4% for both Proteus vulgaris and Shigella sp, hence Bacillus alvis, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococcus eurogenase shows the lowest occurrence with 3.5%. Also the mean aerobic plate count (cfu/g) for unspicedsuya samples was 2.25×106, 2.05×106, 2.47×106, 2.79×106, 2.78×106 while that of spiced suya samples was 2.66×106, 2.36×106, 2.69×106, 2.85×106, 2.89×106 for Yelwa, Government Reserve Area, Bayangari, Railway and Mudalawal motor park retail outlet respectively.  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Meat is an animal product. It is that part of animal that provides major source of protein in west African food. There are different types of meat from different types of animals, e.g. pork meat (pig) multon (goat) beef (cow). Meat can be served as prepared meat product e.g. corn beef, fried meat, cooked meat and suya, meat (smoke meat). Meat is perishable food and its composition is ideal for the growth of wide range of spoilage bacteria. Public concern has vison due to numerous food scandals such as those surrounding bovine spongiform encephalopathy and roof and mouth disease epidemics and food borne disease which remain substantial burden. we can meet those challenges with an improved and global food safety control system. One possible improvement would be a rapid and accurate detection system for microbial spoilage. This technique should ideally also be non-destructive and give result in real time for application in highly automated food processing environment.

Suya meat is produced by smoking the raw beet with the addition of some spices, salt, oil, groundnut cake and flavors. The meat is first sliced into smaller pieces and the spices are rubbed onto it, it is later oven dried or over local source of heart. This allows the meat to get dried properly with the right taste before is gold to the consumers.

This is gold at a specific joint or howked when it is Gold at joint it is constantly kept warm over fire source. The hawked saya meat is carried about in open basin from place to place thereby exposing it to dust and other effects of the environment so doing harmful organisms find their ways into the meat there by coursing for poisoning.

Food poisoning is an illness with acute gastroenteritis as a major symptom caused by the ingestion of food counting my harmful micro organizer or harmful substances. Tomatari (1983).

Some of the microorganisms present in suya causes food poisoning when consumed are Salmonella typhi staphylococcus aureus clostridum butilinum, clostridium preferring Bacillus cereces streptococcus progenies. Some of these microorganisms in meat cause off shavours which make the meat to be unfit for eating and also reduce the taste value.

According to Peter (2014) the chemical composition of meat varies considerably with age, species, degree of fatness of animal, the part of carcass involved etc. Because of the enormous value of meat in the diet, there exist large markets for meet and meat products worldwide at varying money value hence their demands increase day by day across the globe.

Meat products are obtained when raw meat or preserved meat (cured meat) are altered in form by grinding, pressing, drying and other processes then augmented in flavour by smoking, spicing or blending with other food. These meat products are subjected to combination of several basic processing steps before reaching their final form. Therefore, meat products are also termed as processed meat. 

There exist different types of meat product ranging from the industrially processed corned beef, ham, bacon sausage to the indigenous Nigeria traditionally processed ready-to-eat meat product such as “suya” (roasted meat), “kilishi, dan-bu-nama, tsire, jirga, ndako, banda, suya and many more”.  Other meat products includes “beef kebab” in Europe, “kyiskiyma” in central Africa, and “sogo djemine” in Mali.