This study focused on the organization of government media houses with a view to finding the major problems militating against their performing efficiently using NTA and FRCN Enugu as case studies. It was hoped that when these problems are detected and located, solutions will easy to proffer.
The researcher carried out a survey study using sets of questionnaire to gather data from 245 respondents. The response rate was 100% because the researcher had to visit some respondents several times before they were moved to fill the questionnaire. The tools used for analyzing data are frequency tables or percentages.
Sequel to a meticulous analysis of these data collected in the study through questionnaires, the following findings among others were made.
- Most of the staff has low involvement in decision making.
- There are staffs who have overstayed their usefulness.
- There is inadequate availability of infrastructure.
- Majority of the staff are dissatisfied with the general working
Subject to these and other findings, the researcher recommended the following among others.
- Government should grant these media houses autonomy and
- These media houses should be fully commercialized to
- Flexible approach to management should replace the old
rigid and mechanistic system.
- Adequate infrastructure should be put in place so as to meet
the ability to move with the trend in new technology and innovations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page —————————————————————– i
Certification ————————————————————– ii
Dedication ————————————————————— iii
Acknowledgement —————————————————— iv
Abstract ——————————————————————- v
Table of Contents —————————————————— vii
1.1 Background of the Study ——————————————- 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem —————————————— 8
1.3 Objective of the Study ———————————————10
1.4 Research Questions ————————————————-11
1.5 Research Hypotheses ———————————————–11
1.6 Significance of the Research ————————————–12
1.7 Limitations of the Study ——————————————-13
1.8 Delimitation/Scope of the Study ———————————-14
1.9 Definition of Terms ———————————————— 14
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Historical Background of the Nigerian
Television Authority (NTA) ———————————–17
2.2 Brief History on NTA Enugu as a Station
and Zonal Centre ————————————————19
2.3 Objectives of the NTA ——————————————21
2.4 The Organizational Structure and Chart of
NTA Enugu ——————————————————22
2.5 Brief History of the Federal Radio Corporation
Of Nigeria (FRCN) ———————————————-25
2.6 Objectives of FRCN ———————————————26
2.7 Corporate Structure of FRCN ———————————-27
2.8 Bureaucracy ——————————————————-30
2.9 Delegation of Authority: Concept of
Centralization and Decentralization —————————33
2.10 Management Efficiency and Effectiveness —————–36
2.11 Staff and Motivation ——————————————–39
2.12 Staff Training and Development ——————————41
3.1 Introduction ——————————————————-47
3.2 Research Design ————————————————–47
3.3 Sources of Data —————————————————48
3.4 Population of the Study ——————————————48
3.5 Sample Size ——————————————————–49
3.6 Method of Data Analysis ——————————————51
3.7 Decision Criteria for the Validation of Hypotheses ————51
DATA PREENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction ———————————————————53
4.2 Hypotheses Testing ————————————————67
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Introduction ———————————————————77
5.2 Summary of Findings ———————————————-77
5.3 Recommendations ————————————————–79
5.4 Conclusion ———————————————————–81
5.5 Area for Further Study ———————————————81
Appendix I ———————————————————–86
Appendix II ———————————————————-86
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The study is essentially concerned with the management of government media houses in Nigeria with the Nigerian Television Authority, Enugu and Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Enugu as reference points.
It is perhaps very difficult to imagine what today’s organizations would have been like without management. It may not even be possible to have such organizations where groups of people come together for a common purpose. This is because for them to come together requires the coordination of the various resources-human, material, financial and informational. Indeed, organizations would have remained a mere figment of imagination without management because that would rob it of the backbone upon which it is built. Even the basic family structure would have been destroyed before its very beginning was management to be isolated. The above scenario shows that management is not only as old as man but also pervasive. It cuts across all activities as long as there are a group of people who have come together to achieve a common purpose.
Management could refer to the process or the people who carry it out. As Akpala (1999:2) posits, “the management process is basically the combination and utilization of organizational resources towards the achievement of the common or organizational objectives”. As people, the process of management is carried out through people who coordinate the various activities necessary for the accomplishment of organizations’ goals and objectives. They are the managers who guide and combine the other resources, including the employees (labour), in order to ensure that a given task is achieved.
Accomplishment of set goals and objectives are the main reasons or purpose of setting up an organization. Therefore, organizations operate as social tools to produce goods and services needed by the society. In order to achieve these purposes, most organizations pursue three goals which may be intermeshed or independent ends in themselves. These are growth, stability and interaction. If any of the three is lacking in an organization, it may fall into problems that would hinder it from achieving its set goals and objectives.
Basically, organizational problems arise out of defect in the performance of certain management functions. These functions are planning, organizing, directing, and controlling.
Planning is the most basic of all managerial functions. It involves designing purposes and objectives and establishing methods of attaining them. According to Akpala, strategic plan is a win the war plan. Koontz et al (1980:156) describes planning as a fundamental factor in the survival of any organization. A plan is an outline of the actions by which the organization intends to accomplish its goals (Pride et al, 1991: 137). According to Fulmer (1978:94), “failing to plan means planning to fail. Whatever the activity…whatever the stakes…the person who refuses to plan is agreeing to trust all outcomes to the probabilities of chance.
Planning deals with the overall direction of the work to be done. It includes forecasting future trends, assessing resources and developing objectives for performance. It inevitably means making decisions about the area of work in which to engage, and how to use resources. Managers therefore invest time and effort in developing a sense of direction for the organization or their part of it and express this in a set of objectives (Boddy, 2008: 20). Planning is the task of setting objectives, specifying how to achieve them, implementing the plan and evaluating the results. Planning if done well brings four main benefits in that it clarifies direction, motivates people, helps to use resources efficiently, provides a way to measure progress.
Planning according to Cole (2004: 147) involves decisions about ends (objectives) as well as means and decisions about conduct as well as results. The objectives set for an organization will be determined mainly by the view of its owners or senior management as to what is its prime purpose. Thus, the objectives of a business organization will be based around concepts such as profitability, customer service, shareholder satisfaction and employee motivation. The clarification and definition of key objectives is vital for any organization since these are what provide it with a sense of direction and mission.
It should be noted that planning should not just be the prerogative of top management. Indeed, as far as planning is concerned, all hands must be on deck. Getting everybody involved in the planning process ensures that everybody is integrated in the organizational ideas, thereby making them well focused and true team members in the achievement of the organizations’ goals and objectives. To that extent, nobody feels left out or alienated.
Organizing which is the second function in the managerial process starts with and builds on the planning function. It entails the breaking down of the activity of the organization into divisions, departments and sections. The process is further broken down into operative activities or jobs in order to facilitate the achievement of organizational objectives by management. What then emerges from this whole process is an organizational structure which serves as a means or tool of promoting the coordinated performance of the activities in the organization.
Organizing as Boddy(2008:21) posits, is the activity of moving abstract plans closer to realization by deciding how to allocate time and effort. It includes creating a structure for the organization, developing policies for human resources management and deciding what equipment people need. Organizing involves the grouping or arrangement of jobs and other activities so that the organization’s goals and objectives could be achieved in the most efficient and effective manner (Eboh, 2002:11). Fulmer notes that the skills of organization include the grouping of the component jobs, the assignment of groups activities to manager, the delegation of authority to carry them out and the establishment of the relationship that shall exist between the working division (Fulmer, 1978:58-59). One way of enhancing this process is through the organizational chart even though this does not on its own ensure sound organization.
Directing deals with the activity of generating effort and commitment, including motivating individuals and teams (Boddy, 2008:21). Directing is an attempt to influence other people to achieve particular objectives. Directing deals with leadership, communication and motivation as its essential elements. Its importance lies in the ability through performance to work towards the commencement of organizational objectives. According to Fulmer, “failure to make clear the goals, objectives and methods is failure to direct. Organizations should be directed as a car is steered”.
The human resource component of any organization is very important if the goals of that organization must be met. To this end, they must be led in the right path so that results achieved must align with goals intended. This involves influencing them to understand and work for these goals. To be well led, the human resource must be also adequately motivated so that their own individual goals would not be in conflict with that of the organization. It when the employees see the achievement of their individual goals that they would work their hearts out for the organization. Indeed, the twin issues of leading and motivation are essential ingredients of directing (Eboh, 2002:13-14).
Controlling as Pride et al (1991:139) posit, “Controlling is the process of evaluating and regulating on-going activities to ensure that goals are achieved”. It is a three step process involving: setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action. As Fulmer (1978:59-60) points out, “control is the practice of making sure that events go as planned. Control is the attempt to eliminate all surprises…A project that is out of control has little chance of ending according to plan”.
In the control process, a standard is set. This standard could be an objective, deadline, or a desired behaviour. The plans are then implemented with the aim of attaining the standard set. Thereafter, the result-the outcome of the plan that has been implemented –is compared with the standard set. That is, the standard reached is compared with the standard that was set. In the event of any deviation or variation between the standard set and one attained, corrective steps are taken to avoid future deviations so that results or output achieved conform to the intended or expected standard. If however, there is no deviation between the two, the activity continues unaltered.
Bracey et al (1981:102) points that controlling on its part involves the measurement of accomplishment of events or goals against the established standard of plan and the correction of deviations to ensure attainment of objectives according to plan. The essence of control is to ensure that a check and balance mechanism is in place to make management remain focused all the time. Controlling according to Boddy (2008:22) is the task of monitoring progress, comparing it with plan and taking corrective action. Control also provides an opportunity to learn from past events.
These four managerial functions are interrelated and must be pursued with a holistic systems approach if the organization is to remain effective. No organization can afford to overlook these functions and hope to survive in business in an increasingly dynamic and challenging business world.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM