MOTIVATING THE WORKFORCE FOR GREATER PRODUCTIVITY IN THE BANKING SECTOR OF THE ECONOMY IN THE 21ST CENTURY (A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA)
Although there is general agreement among psychologists that man
experience a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance.
There have been a number of attempts to present models of motivation which list a specific number of motivating needs, with the implication that these lists are all-inclusive and represent the total picture of needs, unfortunately, each of these models has weaknesses and gap and we are still without a general theory of motivation.
All organization are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustained high level of performance through people. Consequently the subject of adequate motivation of workers as derived from the so many attempts made by management practitioner is to look for the best way to manage so as to accomplish an objective or mission with the least inputs of material and human resources available.
A lot of theoretical concept principles and techniques of management have evolved in response to these challenges. In general management, authors have tended to view motivation as a key component of the managerial function of leading or directing. However, leading or leadership style, although an important factor in determining the attitude of employers towards assigned job responsibilities, is not the only determinant other managerial function such as planning, controlling, staffing and organization also play a role.
In any serious and competitive society, workers are one of the tools for economic progress. Their welfare is taken into serious consideration because without a dedicated workforce, an organization crumbles. The nations’ (Nigerian) reward system is probably the poorest in the entire nation where an average take home of the worker is very small. Workers are used and abused, harassed, treated, offended and discarded without any appreciation for their contribution to their organization and to the society at large.
It is therefore apparent that the issue of adequate motivation of worker has relevance in managerial function and activities that are aimed at directing the productive effort of the worker force toward achieving organizational objectives. Knotz et al (2000) holds that management strive to create and maintain an environment that is conducive to the performance of individuals who are working together towards the accomplishment of pre-selected objectives workers in the organization, work in progress and group dynamics often result in the conflict of goals between individuals and other groups.
Conversely, motivation according to strauss and sayles (1996), can be provided for workers, using the following methods:
- The traditional approach
- Human relation approach
- Implicit bargaining
- Internalized motivation
(1) The traditional approach to motivation, which is often referred to as the economic man model assumes the following.
(a) The only reason why people work: is to earn money and that they will work only if driven to it by fear of losing their job.
(b) Since no one like to work, people will try to get away with doing as little as they can, management must tell every worker exactly what to do, spell out every rule and give the worker the narrowest possible range for description
(2) The human relation approach: This emphasizes motivation basically through satisfying the workers security and benefits that provide some protection against illness old age and unemployment. The social need for belonging should be met by various recreational activities and be the development of strong cohesive work groups.
(3) The implicit bargaining: When using this approach, management encourages workers to do a reasonable amount of work by agreeing to be more flexible in terms of supervision.
These bargaining are usually a matter of implicit unspoken understanding.
(4) The competition: This is important because it helps the worker to satisfy various forms of need satisfaction, some of these include a sense of accomplishment, and added social prestige.
(5) The last of the approaches under consideration is internalized motivation this deals with providing opportunities for need satisfaction through doing the job itself.
This approach uses Herzberge’s motivators, which means that management should create conditions under which workers will willingly and voluntarily work towards organization objective because they enjoy the work.
Economic motivation is de-emphasized and more stress is put on age mode. These methods according to status and styles can either be used alone or in combination. It is further stated that usually most manager uses a combination of all five methods. It is important to consider the issue of motivation in organization because of the interleave desire of people to pursue their own personal aspirations while the organizational objective are being met.
Certain problems of inadequate motivation however do arise as it concerns certain individual who come into the work situation with difference in expectation, behaviour and outlook. These problems of individual motivation inadequately may be divided into two categories?
Firstly, the inability of certain individual to be motivated may stem from the fact that there is inefficiency in their personality for such people the desire to avoid failure may be too strong while paradoxically, the motive to produce positive results may be too weak. This could produce general resistances to achievement oriented activity that should naturally be overcome by other extrinsic modes of motivation if there is to be any spin to achievement oriented activity at all.
Secondly, even when the achievement motive is relatively strong, the challenge before the individual worker may be proven to be inadequate or too difficult. Whichever of these that apply to the individual worker, will usually manifest themselves in different ways such as lack of enthusiasm or premature surrender.
Bryans and Crouin (2005) opined that effective group functioning depends on the development of supportive relationship. This is important because it makes provisions for different views to be put forward and carefully studied, thus mentioning the development of conflicts, which could be destructive to the establishment. Bryan and Crouin (2005) further stated that discussion, collective problem solving and decision making could all benefit from a genuinely supportive atmosphere.
This is because the individual could derive a sense of acceptance from being a member of the establishment. This could serve as a powerful motivating force in influencing his behaviour towards other member of the establishment. At the base of all these, it is the issue of individual differences which go a long way to determine the extent to which an individual is motivated, some of the factors which are responsible for individual include genetic make up, up bringing and current influences.
In spite of this entire apparent attendant, problems of motivation and productivity, every organization do necessarily seek means of ensuring continued productivity, which will be geared towards the accomplishment of organizational goals. The organizational system under study cannot be said to be different in any way in terms of producing the result for which it was setup. In all these processes, the private and indeed corporate organization business has thus helped to make Nigeria the country it is today. Motivation also finds relevance in the behavioral sciences especially in psychology where attempts are made to find out the what, when, how and who of human behaviour. Gbadamosi and Adegbakin, (1996) posit that motivation is an aspect of the sciences that attempt to answer the question as to why human beings behave the way they do.
This study will also examine to what extents the economic factors such as achievement, job security, recognition, advancements, job enrichment, or the job itself, responsibility, decisional participation and managerial style are needed to raise the morals of the workers for high productivity. These factors are referred to in this work as non-economic motivators in the sense that their incentive power is not necessarily derived from money.
It is often said that one of the key problem in private organization is not that the workers lack motivation but the managers’ lacks the ability to nurture it. Adequate motivation (high moral), leadership style and the success of an organization are closely intertwined.
The good leader is who is able to motivate his workers to maximum production and efficiency. A man however only gives what he has. To be able to motivate, a leader must know what a motivator and how to use it. It can be believed that pay package and fringe benefits are taken for granted and do not serve as primary motivators. On the other hand, certain factors, which contribute to human dignity, may not entail any monetary gain but to the individual may mean much and when they are present may create a very good and healthy atmosphere to induce adequate motivation but when they are absent, the result is frustration and de-motivation.
The study identifies these elements that promotes dignity and thus raise the moral of the worker in Central Bank of Nigeria for higher productivity. The study further investigates the effect of these factors were referred to as “non-economics motivators on the workers and the consequent output of Central Bank of Nigeria.
For the purpose of this study then, non-economic motivators is used to refer to those factors which are not necessarily computable in monetary term but which, drive human mind from within to behave in a desired way and to maximum realization of the organizational objectives while adequate motivation is simply defined as contentment, fulfillment or job satisfaction. This research should perhaps explain that the title “the implication of adequate motivation of workers productivity” is its own compare, which may be likened to Herzberg hygiene factors.
Herzberg had concluded from his studies that achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth are major satisfiers because their positive influences is far more frequently an element in satisfaction than their negative effect an element in dissatisfaction. More recent studies have advanced on Herzberg’s position.
While there are studies to support Herzberg’s list of satisfiers in his
sequence, there are questions as to the position or order of these satisfiers.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigeria is the largest and the most heavily populated country in the
continent of African. She gained independent in 1960, with independence, come a number of prominent adjustments among which was change in leadership structure, role and operation of the government.
Nigeria, like other developing nations, entered the international scene as a sovereign nation at a time when the developed countries have already achieved a high level technological, socio-cultural and economical advancement. Like in other developing countries the urge to catch up with the west has led to massive state involvement in many facets of socio-economic life, a factor that has become a part of the task of nation building. The scene of urgency and the need to reinforce political independence with economic growth is reflected in all her national development plans since independence. Nigeria has progressed from a basically agrarian society to a budding industrial society with a mixed level of educational and technological attainment. Nevertheless, with reference to the lunching of our first satellite on the orbit on September 27, 2003, this has in a way boosted her technological status. Nigeria satellite is the culmination of a long harboured dream of having a wholly owned earth-observing device capable of assisting the nation in dealing with its multi factor problem.
Within the early period, the country has experienced many changes in the leadership by way of coups and counter-coups, civil war, state creation with their entire attendant problem. Conversely motivation is a by-product of any factors. These factors could either be internally or externally galvanized, depending on the disposition of the individual and prevailing circumstances at any given time.
In the present Nigerian situation, the economic rate of activities and the subsequent high inflation rate have made money a relatively high motivating factor.
Behaviour is both directed to and results from unsatisfied news. The limited number of salary reviews in Nigeria as well in corporate organization has brought about a situation where there have been persistent expressions of dissatisfaction among workers.
The private organization or service industry depend largely on government budget and prevailing stipulated policy to stay in the market. Therefore, salary reviews has invariably led to situation in
which a lot of financial pressures have been put on management of the
organization. In particular, Central Bank of Nigeria incidentally, its the lower category of workers that bear the burden of price increases while the salary of management staff are scarcely affected. Inflation ordinarily affects the standard of living of people. This in turn, adversely affects productivity.
Low productivity in most cases is a by-product of dissatisfaction, which could manifest itself in various ways. Some of these ways include indiscipline and general apathy. To contain these traits, it is important to understand the individuals to be motivated and society itself. This is because the number of factors which influence individuals in different societal setups differ.
In some cases, such a method could prove to be counter productive because the issue of adequate motivation and consequently, workers productivity is a product of a person’s set up of needs goals drive and experience. By implication, this means that factors which govern motivation, job satisfaction, workers’ productivity and attitude to work, differ from one society to another. However, the entire issue of the implication of adequate motivation on workers’ productivity is embedded in the various theories of motivation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigeria is reputed to be the sixth largest producer of oil in the world. Recent exploratory works have indicated that the country has an even larger reserve of natural gas than petroleum. The country therefore has the potential to becoming a leading industrialized (if the potential are properly harnessed) nation in the world in the not-too-distant future due to the national resources. The current state of affairs in the nation in general as relating to the workforce motivation makes it necessary to temper this optimism with caution.
The workers launch on strike again and again over pay rise after the ones granted just few already. One may ask, What more do they want? The questions are often asked as to what workers in general and particular want from their employers. Can there be an
end to the clamour for increase in wages? Why do workers work and what induce them to turn in their best? These questions are not peculiar to the civil servants or services organization in Nigeria alone. Some years back, the federal government announced an upward review of the minimum wages in the civil services. Almost, immediately after the announcement, there was a nation wide agitation by workers in the state and local government bureaucracies to benefit from the largesse.
It would appear as if money, and more money, is what workers ever ask for, but the fact that money is a motivator in this part of the world, money only plays the role of common denominator of all things. There is a general notion that if only management can identify other things that can motivate the workforce apart from money, perhaps, there will be a dramatic reduction in the demand by workers for pay rises. Less time will be spent on the annual ritual of management/workers union negotiation meetings.
1.3 OBJECTIVE, PURPOSE AND AIM OF STUDY
The research will attempt to proffer answers to the question agitating the minds of management of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Port Harcourt as to what to do to adequately motivate her workers to contribute their quota to their company’s productivities and growth.
The research also will look at motivation from the perspective of the workforce. While seeking to refute or validate the various models and theories of motivation by finding out from the “horse mouth what really motivate the workers in the Central Bank of Nigeria, Port Harcourt of today and the causes of poor performance and productivity.
The purpose of this study include finding out whether there is any
relationship between adequate motivation factors and productivity to work among management, senior staff, junior staff and contract staff respectively of the organization under study.
Secondly it is hoped that study will help to identify how the staff of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Port Harcourt rate the various motivational factor and its implication finally, it is expected that the finding of this study will serve as basis for fore staring improved working relationship between management of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Port Harcourt and her staff.
The aim of this research therefore is to find out from empirical studies whether workers given the right incentives other than money can put in their best to contribute to the productivity and growth of the organization to achieve the following objective, amongst other. Reduce labour turnover, Increase workers productivity, Redesign and put in place appropriate labour laws and policies, eliminate or reduce industrial unrest, improve management and staff relations.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Answer to the following research question were sought so as to provide
solutions to the problem of the study.
(i) Is there any relationship between motivational factors and work productivity for experienced staff of Central Bank of Nigeria?
(ii) Does pay package necessitate sufficient condition for workers satisfaction in the organization?
(iii) Will the organization perform better when the satisfaction workers derive outweigh the discomfort and sacrifices that are involved?
(iv) Does monetary incentives and reward exert a stronger influence on workers in Central Bank of Nigeria than any form of motivational incentives?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
To put this research in proper perspective, the following hypotheses were formulated for testing.
- H0 There is no significant relationship between motivational factor and work productivity for experienced staff of Central Bank of Nigeria
H1 There is a significant relationship between motivational factor and work productivity for experienced staff of Central Bank of Nigeria
- H0 The pay package does not necessitate sufficient condition for workers satisfaction in the organization
H1 The pay package does necessitate sufficient condition for workers satisfaction in the organization
- H0 The organization will not perform better when the satisfaction workers derive outweigh the discomfort and sacrifices that are involved
H1 The organization will perform better when the satisfaction workers derive outweigh the discomfort and sacrifices that are involved
- H0 Monetary incentives and reward exerts no stronger influence on workers in Central Bank of Nigeria than any form of motivational incentives
H1 Monetary incentives and reward exerts stronger influence on workers in Central Bank of Nigeria than any form of motivational incentives
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The findings from this study will help to highlight those areas where there are problems among staff and thus will be of great benefit to the chief executive official of the organization and policy makers.
The results of this study would hopefully be significant in the sense that it would enable both management and the labour union to better understand how the various motivational factor could be harnessed to inspire staff to increase and sustain productivity.
The findings from this study would help to further highlight the likely problems of frustrations and how motivation can be used to either reduce or eliminate these problems amongst staff of the organization.
The result from this study will help to highlight the concept of group dynamics and staff behaviour to work. Through such understanding, the administration scope of the chief executive official could be broadened and this would put him in a better position to review and over-head their orientation to administration in terms of better motivating staff and thus producing better results by fully utilizing the human resources potentials available.
Furthermore, this study will be of immense benefit to policy makers in the human resources function of the organization. Also, labour union officials and representatives at the negotiation meeting will find it useful when putting together their “basket of needs” and it will assist management in these other areas:
– Designing and putting together welfare incentives for the workforce.
– Outline different approaches to work motivation
– Explain the meaning and underlying concepts of motivation useful for government officials and establishments responsible for reviewing and updating policies and legislation or worker motivation.
1.9 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study is taking overview of workers in Central Bank of Nigeria
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(i) Adequate motivation: these are factors (Familiarity, concern and driving force). Which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.
(ii) Implication of motivation: the term could be defined as the work disposition of an employee, which affects the move of doing his work.
(iii) Intimacy: Intimacy or familiarity could be described as the felling of warmth and fiend lines based on interpersonal relationship among people.
(iv) Consideration: Consideration or concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case the is both a personal and human touch in dealing with workers.
(v) Thrust: Thrust or driving force deals with leadership by example as a means of motivations subordinates. Leadership in this context take
personal interest in staff while also displaying a high degree of
professional competence and dynamic leadership qualities.
(vi) Moral: Moral to staff emotional and mental level of zeal.
(vii) Productivity: Productivity is the relationship between the amount of one or more input and the amount of output from a clearly identified process.
(viii) Permanent staff: Permanent staff refers, to those experienced member of staff who irrespective of their ages have been working for a minimum period of five years.
(ix) Contract staff: Member of staff who irrespective of their academic
accomplishment and status is more or less regarded.
(x) Management staff: Management staff refers to those members of staff who irrespective of their age have attained level 6.
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