PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETER OF EKPENE UKPA RIVER

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ABSTRACT
The physiochemical parameter (PH , Salinity, Acidity, Dissolves Oxygen, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Zinc, Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biological Demand ) of the river water collected from Ekpene Ukpa River from July to September 2019 were measured in the laboratory following the standard procedures .The laboratory result of the selected physiochemical parameter when compared with the world health Organization (WHO) standard showed that all the selected physiochemical parameter were within the world Health Organization (WHO) permissible in rainy season .The result of heavy metals shows that all the sampling month are within the range of (WHO) standard. The value of heavy metal from July to September are: Lead (Pb) 0.584, 0.487 and 0.461 Cadmium (Cd) 0.768 , 0.728and 0.632,Copper (Cu) 1.221,2.012 and2.104, Zinc (Zn) 0.247, 1.926,2.073 respectively. The difference between each month was tested statistically using t- test. The results the statistical analyses showed a significant difference (p< 0.05) between the month of July and September.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page
Title page i
Certification Error! Bookmark not defined.
Dedication Error! Bookmark not defined.
Acknowledgements Error! Bookmark not defined.
Abstract ii
Table of Contents iii
Chapter One 7
Introduction 7
1.1 Background 7

  1. 2 Objective 9
    1.3 Aim 9
    1.4 Justification 9
    1.5 Scope Of Study 9
    Chapter Two Error! Bookmark not defined.
    Literature Review Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.1 Physico-Chemical Parameter Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2 Physico-Chemical And Biological Characteristic Of Water Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.1 Ph Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.2 Turbidity And Total Suspended Solids Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.3 Chloride Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.4 Nitrate And Total Nitrogen Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.5 Sulphate Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.6 Alkalinity Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.7 Chemical Oxygen Demand Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.2.8 Algae Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.3 Water Quality Challenges Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.3.1 Agricultural Use Of Fertilizer And Runoff Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.3.2 Population Growth, Uncontrolled Disposal Of Human And Industrial Wastes Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.3.3 Mining Activities Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.4 Land Use Impact On Water Quality Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.5 Climate Change Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.6.0 Heavy Metal Pollution Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.6.1 Water Pollution By Heavy Metal Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.6.2 Zinc Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.6.3 Copper Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.6.4 Lead Error! Bookmark not defined.
    2.6.5 Cadmium Error! Bookmark not defined.
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    Materials And Method Error! Bookmark not defined.
    3.1 Study Area Error! Bookmark not defined.
    3.2 Sample Collection Error! Bookmark not defined.
    3.3 Analysis Of Sample Error! Bookmark not defined.
    3.4 Statistical Analysis Error! Bookmark not defined.
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    Result And Discussion Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.1 Result Error! Bookmark not defined.
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    4.2.1 Ph Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.2 Salinity Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.3 Dissolved Oxygen(Do) Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.4 Alkalinity Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.5 Nitrate Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.6 Zinc(Zn) Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.7 Lead(Pb) Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.8 Copper(Co) Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.9 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (Bod) Error! Bookmark not defined.
    4.2.10 Chemical Oxygen Demand (Cod) Error! Bookmark not defined.
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    References Error! Bookmark not defined. LIST OF FIGURES
    Figure 4. 1: A graph showing the concentration of parameters in different month Error! Bookmark not defined.

All shows the concentration of parameters in different month

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Water is the most valuable resource available to man, without which no life can survive. (Algaon-Odot et al ,2012). Water bodies pollution is the introduction of contaminants into water bodies .(Algaon- Odot et al ). Water pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment (Michael Hogan, 2014). Water pollution affects aquatic biota. Globally, the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication; this is the induction of nutrients into water bodies. Eutrophication substantially impairs beneficial uses of water (UNDESA, 2005).
Water quality refer to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water (Dier Song et al ., 2009). It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirement of one or more biotic species, and or to any human need or purpose .it is most frequently used by reference to a set of standard against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standard used to access water quality related to health of ecosystem, safely of human contact and consumption (USEPA, 2005).Water quality parameter are parameter in which the assessment of water quality is based. Water quality parameter are divided into three categories; physical, chemical, and biological parameters. (Ben-coker, 2012). Some of the physico-chemical parameters include PH, salinity, Acidity, dissolve oxygen, alkalinity, nitrate, zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand etc.
Water is adjudged safe if these parameters fall within certain range that is tolerable by human consume; and also tolerable by living organism with the aquatic environment (Standard Organization of Nigeria, 2007).water quality standard or guideline describes the quality parameters set for drinking water (Arokoya et al. ,2014) . despite the truism that every human on this planet needs water to survive, and that water may contain
many harmful constitutions, there is no universally recognized or acceptable international standard for drinking water (Arokoya et al .,).Even where standard do exist, and are applied, the permitted concentration of individual constituents may vary by as much as ten times from one set of standard to another. Many developed countries specify standard to be applied in their own country (Arokoyu et al., 2004.) surface water is an essential and vital resource for the people of Akwa Ibom State, Ekpene Ukpa in particular. It is a major source of water for drinking, harvesting of sands, fishing etc especially during the dry season when public water supply is irregular (Arimieari et al .,2005).
The deterioration of river water quality can result from natural processes and anthropogenic activities through the discharge of industrial and domestic waste water as well as agricultural drainage to the rivers. Poor water quality spreads disease, causes death and hampers socio-economic progress. Drinking water is often obtained from fresh water source such as rivers that are industrial waste water discharge and runoff from agricultural or contaminated land (Monika et al., 2011).water pollution has many sources, organic waste are produced by animals and human including such thing as fecal matter, crop debris (Stoate et al ., 2009), yard clippings, food wastes, rubber, plastic, wood and disposable diapers.
Fertilizer and pesticides used by farmers can be washed through the soil by rain to end up in rivers. Industrial waste products are also washed into rivers .
such contamination enter the food chain and accumulate until they reach toxic levels, eventually killing birds, fish and mammals. (Geetha and Gouthami, 2017).
Water quality monitoring is define as the collection of information at set location and at regular intervals in order to provide data which may be used to define current condition, establish trends (Niel et al., 2016).

  1. 2 OBJECTIVE
    To find out the physic-chemical parameter in sample in Ekpene Ukpa River in Etinan Local Government Area.
    To analyze selected water quality parameter in Ekpene Ukpa River to ascertain its suitability for water supply for drinking purpose.
    1.3 AIM
    To investigate surface quality of water in Ekpene Ukpa River in Etinan Local Government Area.

1.4 JUSTIFICATION
Water is the valuable resource available to man, without which no life can survive. Adequate and safe water supply is a pre-requisite for significant socio-economic development of any community.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
Urbanization , agricultural run-off, industrial and sewage disposal have affected the quality of water around the country and making it unfit for domestic purpose (Kadewa et al. , 2005; Gupta et al,2009, Chatterjee et al , 2010; Choudhany et al, 2011; Ullah et al., 2013). The Ekpene Ukpa River in Etinan Local Government of Akwa Ibom State lie downstream from expanding urban, industrial and road construction, which posses a threats to the river water quality.
The laboratory analyses of the raw water sample for physical, chemical and heavy metals.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETER OF EKPENE UKPA RIVER