PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF andrographis paniculata

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF andrographis paniculata


  • Introduction

Andrographis paniculata is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water. The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria.

Andrographis paniculata is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient. Historically, as the most easily available mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical and domestic uses some of which (such as its use a general household cleaner) are still promoted today. (Panda, 2004). Commercial andrographis paniculata is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. In general, slow methods are used with traditional vinegars and fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of months or year. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a non – toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria.

Andrographis paniculata plant is a mesophetic perennial shrub, 30 – 60cm in height with small elliptic lanceolate leaves averaging 3cm in width and 8cm in length. The leaves are dark green in colour with a characteristic odour and intensively bitter. Although andrographis paniculata has no recorded origin, they are found wild or cultivated abundantly in the South – South region of Nigeria. The leaves decoction of this plant had been implicated in folk medicine for the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, body pains and entities. Because of its abundant and widespread availability this plant is studied as part of the exploitation for new novel bioactive compounds against diarrheal diseases. This study set out to determine the phytochemistry and antibacterial activities of androgravis paniculata cultivated in Southern Nigeria. Vinegar is an alcoholic liquid that has been allowed sour. It is primarily used to flavout and preserve foods, ingredient in salad dressings and marinades. Vinegar is also used as a cleaning agent.

The transformation of wine or fruit juice to Andrographis paniculata is a chemical process in which ethyl alcohol undergoes partial oxidant that result in the formation of acetaldehyde. The acetaldehyde is converted into acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata is made from a variety of diluted alcohol products the most common being wine, beer, and rice. Balsamic andrographis paniculata is made from the trebbiano and lambrusco grapes. Distilled andrographis paniculata are made from wood product like beech (Cerezo et al., 2008).

While most people think of andrographis paniculata as something that is made from wine, it can be made from the fermented juices of virtually any plant material, including grain, rice and fruit. European andrographis paniculata is basically an alcoholic beverage that has gone sour. Andrographis paniculata are made from a broad variety of bases. Any liquid containing sugar and starch can be conceivable be made into andrographis paniculata once alcohol fermentation has begun. Different cultures make andrographis paniculata from their local produce fermenting dates, honey, raisins, rose petals, sorghum and sugar cane.