SAMPLING OF WASTE DAMPSITE AT OLD STADIUM ROAD, UYO AND EFFECTS OF FAUNA, FLORA OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT
- Background of Study
Waste generation is closely linked to population, urbanization and affluence. The archaeologist E. W. Haury wrote, whichever way one views the mounds (of waste), as garbags pits to avoid, or as symbols of a way of life, they are the features more productive of information than any othter. Archaeological excavation have yielded thicket culture layers from periods of prospective correspondingly, modern waste generation rate can be correlated to various waste generation rate can be correlated to various indicators of affluence, including gross domestic product (GDP)/Cap, energy consumption/cap, and private final consumption (Bingemer and Coutzen, 1987; Richards, 1989; Rethje et al., 1992; Mertins et al., 1999; USEPA, 1999; Nakicenovic et al., 2000; Bogner and Matthew, 2003 and OECD, 2004). In developed countries seeking to reduce waster generation, a current goal is to decouple waste generation from economic driving forces such as GDP (OECD, 2003; Giegrich and Vogt, 2005; EEA, 2005). In most developed and developing countries with increasing population, prosperity and urbanization, it remains a major challenge for municipalities to recycle, treate and dispose of increasing quantities of solid waste and waste water. A cornerstone of sustainable development is the establishment of affordable practices in developing countries. It must be further emphasized that multiple public health, safety and environmental co-benefits accrue from effective waste management practices which concurrently reduce GHG emissions and improve the quality of life, promote public health, prevent water and soil contamination, conserve natural resources and provide renewable energy benefits.
The mitigation of GHG (Green House Gases) emissions from waste must be addressed in the context of integral waste management. Most technologies for waste management are mature and have been successfully implemented for decades in many countries. Nevertheless, there is significant potential for accelerating both the direct reduction of GHG emission from waste as well as extended implications for indirect reductions within other sectors (CA is an essential for tool for consideration of both the direct and indirect impact of waste management technologies and policies (Thoineloe et al., 2002, 2005; WRAP, 2006). Because direct emission represent only a portion of the life cycle impacts of various waste management strategies (Ackeiman, 2000), this write up includes complementary strategies for GHG avoidance, indirect GHG mitigation and use of waste as a source of renewable energy to provide fossile fuel offset. Using (CA and other decision – support tools, there are many combined mitigation strategies that can be cost – effectively implemented by the public or private sector. Land fill CH4 recovery and optimized waste water treatment can directly reduce GHG emissions. GHG generation can be largely avoided through controlled aerobic compositing and thermal processes such as inceneration for waste – to – energy. Moreover, waste prevention minimization, material recovery, recycling and re-use represent a growing potential for indirect reduction of GHG emission through decreased waste generation, lower raw material consumption, reduced energy demand and fossil fuel avoidance. Recent studies (Smith et al., 2001; WRAP, 2006) have begun to comprehensively quantify the significant benefits of recycling for indirect reduction of GHG emission from the waster sector.
It is important to stress that both the CH4 and N2O) from the waste sector are microbially produced and consumed with rates controlled by temperature, moisture, pH, available substrates. Microbial competition and many other factors. As a result, CH4 and N2O generation, microbial consumption and net emission rates routinely exhibit temporal and spatial variability over many orders of magnitude, exacerbating the problem of developing credible national estimates. The N2O from landfills is considered an insignificant source globally (Bogner et al., 1999; Rinne et al., 2005), but may need to be considered locally with cover soil as commended with sewage sludge (Borgesson and Swenson, 1997a) pr aerobic (semi-aerobic landfilling practices are implemented (isugimoto et al., 1994). Substantial emission of CH4 and N2O can occur during waste water transport in closed sewes and in conjunction with anaerobic, in addition to GHG emission, open sewers and uncontrolled solid waste disposal sites results in serious public health problems resulting from pathogenic microorganisms, toxic adours and disease vectors.
Advances in waste – to – energy have benefited from general advances in biomes combustion, thus the more advanced technologies such as fluidized bed combustion with emissions control can provide significant future impact on GHG reduction can be even greater (Loliniva et al., 2002; Pipatti and Savalainen 1996; Consonni et al., 2005). High cost, however is a major barrier to the increased implementation of waste – to – energy. Incineration has often proven to be unsustainable in developing countries, thus thermal process are expected to be primarily (but not exclusively) deployed in developed countries. Advanced combustion technologies are expected to become more competitive as energy prices increase and renewable sources gain larger market share.
- Aims and Objective of the Study
The aim and objectives of this study was to sample the waste dump site at Old Stadium road and know the effects fauna, flora of their environment.
- Scope and Limitation of the Study
This piece of research work was limited to the sampling of waste dumpsite at old stadium road and its effect on their fauna, flora of their environment; it was also limited by time, financial constraint and also lack of understanding of the inhabitants of the area and tribalism.
- Definition of Terms
Waste: There are unwanted materials, goods and products that are no more in use.
Waste Management: This is a set of characteristic activities that includes the following: (a) collection, transport and disposal of waste (b) control monitoring and regulation of the production, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste and (c) prevention of waste production through in-process medication, reuse and recycling.
Waste Disposal: This is the process of getting rid of unwanted materials or substances.
Xenobiotics: This is defined as waste collected by municipal or other local authorities.
Ground Water Contamination: This is the detrimental alteration of the naturally occurring physical, thermal, chemical or biological quality of ground water.