• Background tothe Study

One of the most critical factors affecting the achievement of educational aims and objectives is deviant behaviour. The aims and objectives of education was to develop the domains of individual to meet the societal needs and the individual sustenance but the plaque of deviant behaviour among secondary students tend to betray these purposes. Deviant behavior can be seen as any behavioural patterns, actions or reactions that violate social orders, norms, cultures and values of the society. It is a behaviouralptterns that does not conform to the social orders or norms of a social system. Deviant behaviourcould be understood as behaviours, actions, reactions of a social actors which are contrary to the set rules and regulations of a school system. It constitutes all forms of crime and delinquency that is inimical to the social orders, values, cultures and traditions of a social system.among teenagers and young adult.  They become deviance when they engage in activities which are neither the control of the school system in the society such as crime, disobedience, fighting, stealing, disrespect, lying, drugs abuse, rape, drunkenness, home prostitution, cultism, gambling, lateness to school, absenteeism, dishonesty. It also include examination malpractice, improper dressing, falsification of result, abortion, burglary, leaving the school compound  before closing, noise making in class, bullying, arrogance, aggression, truancy, to mld be classified into moral personal legal safety and educational forms of deviance (Isangedighi 2007)

Deviant behaviors can be seen as any behavioral patterns, actions that violate social orders, norms, cultures and values of a society. it is a behaviours , actionsaction that does not conform to the societal orders or norms, it constitute all  forms of crime and delinquency that is contrary to so. According  to ibia (2012) deviant behaviour is explained in terms of attitudinal behaviours which is describe in educational institution “ inappropriate behavior”, “conduct  disorder”, “ unhealthy behavior”, “ abnormal behavior” . However, any two schools are two different social groups with their social orders set down to suit the norms, cultures and traditions of the society in which they belong to.

It has been observed that deviant behaviour is mostly associated with teenagers and adolescent age within the school context during the course of interaction within and between the social actors of the school system. It is a topical issue in school system and a great concern not only to teachers and school administrators alone but also to guidance counselors, behaviouraltherapists, psychologists, educational sociologists, concern parents and government over a rapid and unprecedented upsurge of deviant behaviours in Nigerian society at large. The Nigerian Society today is developing hence it required an education system that will enable the youths to understand the society and cultural heritage. This will help in the preservation of the society and its culture and will also help in preparing citizens for a changing attitude, knowledge, skills, manpower and experience in the society. The education of the youths is very essential in order to ensure the confidence of the citizens to the social and economic development of the country as well as raising the standard of living generally. No wonder various school authorities have adopted different measures to curb deviant behaviour among students in schools. The measures adopted are Suspension, Expulsion, Manual labour, Public Assault, Guidance counseling cautioning, Withdrawal of privileges, and Deprivation of Right in school system. These measures vary from school to school and in accordance to the extent of deviance committed.

The Nigerian education system is expected to stimulate the spirit of patriotism and lay the solid foundation for national and international understanding and cooperation among our youths. Through education services, those deviant behaviour manifestations may be eradicated in schools by attempting to restructure the organization of the school, peer group, family religious institutions and all other primary organizations in the society. Among the possible contributing factors that may enhance growth of deviant behavior of secondary school students is a social media such as mobile phones usage, Facebook usage, WhatsApp, Home video films usage, Instagram, Twitter and Text messages. This social media has contributed to observable shift in the social order of any society like the secondary school system through social crime pictures such as violence, abortion, rape bullying, arrogance, gangsterism, gossiping, improper dressing, truancy, burglary, fighting, lying and glamorization of drugs which are posted on social media( Facebook, InstagramWhatsApp, Internet ,Pornographic sites). Anti-social behaviours are presented on internet in the lyrics of popular music and video films nowadays. These are made easy with mobile phones that have such facilities since society had come to a point where the idea of living without cell phone seems ludicrous.

Teenage students are the most prolific users of phone more than some oftheir parents. Some parents desired their children to have a cell phone for communication and security purposes but students took advantage of that by demanding the highest facilitated accessories cell phone to sustain either good or bad motives to interact with friends, neighbours and colleagues within and around his or her jurisdictions. These social networks of interactions have permeated across cultural groups, economic strata educational units and age cohorts.Teenagers and young adults spend a considerable portion of their daily activities interacting through social networking media. Confidentially, they unveiled their feelings without much pressure nor influence to loved ones, friends neighbours and colleagues and at the same way are exposed and addicted to negativebehavioural patterns such as cyber-bullying, indecent dressing, vulgarity of languages, online sexual crime, drug abuse, disrespect, dishonesty, stealing, fighting, arrogance, alcoholism, assaults, cultism, lying,  aggression and falsification through global social networking of interaction where they exhibit thoughts, feelings, actions, reactions, motions, pictures, songs/ music which are inimical to school society. These global social network of interaction help to disseminate information, images, actions, reactions in a speeding retentive mode into the domains of thousand individual student not minding the negative effect accorded in students morally, psychologically, socially, physiologically, economically and academically. It is then the purview of criminologists, psychiatrists, psychologists and sociologists to study how these anti-behavioural patterns are created, how they change over time, how they are enforced and what modalities is required to minimize its tendencies. However, this study sought to investigate the relationship between social media and deviant behavior of secondary school students in AkwaIbom North-East Senatorial District –Nigeria.

  • Theoretical framework

The theoretical background of this study is based on the following theories and models.

  • 1) Observational Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1969)
  • 2) Technological Determination Theory (Mcluhan, 1962)
  • 3) The Classical Theory
  • 4) Symbolic Interaction Theory (Blumer, 1969)
    • Observational social learning theory (Bandura 1969)

The observational social learning theory was first developed by a sociological psychologist known as Albert Bandura in 1969. This theory basically posits that the learning process of an individual depends on the observation of a model behaviouralpattern, attitudes of other people in the social environment and then duplicating those skills, process, strategy of task demonstrated by the model. This happens without overt instructional activity and without the model realization of his services as an instrument of learning for the observer. Bandura do explains social learning theory asan human behaviour in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural and environmental influence through necessary conditions for modeling such as attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation and reinforcement. Thetheory also contends that one’s appraisal of one’s self competence pertaining to preventive behaviours generate the self-confidence necessary for successful performance of these behaviours. In a series demonstration, Bandura showed that children were very quick to imitate aggressive behaviour through film watching but did not necessarily show them immediately in their behaviour. However, they will reproduce these behaviour where needs arises.

This theory is relevant to this study as it deduces that through the media, students are supposed to play a strategic role in fostering social development by setting up action-learning programmes to enable them imitate and develop appropriate and acceptable behavioural patterns. For example, adolescence may watch video and pornographic films on sex or violent or any other behaviour and may tends to imitate and reproduce such behaviour due to the attention and retentive memory exert on it. It will be suitable if their interaction in social media will recognized the importance of modeling appropriate behaviours thereby building their self efficacy.


1.2.2    Technological determination theory   (Mcluhan 1962)

This theory states that the media technology shape how individual in a society think, feel, act and how the society operates as they move from one technological age to another (Tribal-Literate-up-print-social media) theory was developed by Mcluhan in 1962. It explains that individual learns, feel and think the way they do because of the messages they receivethrough the current technology that is available. For instance, the radio requires only listening and developing a sense of learning. On the other hand, television engages both learning and visual senses, people then transfer those developed senses into their everyday lives and would want to use them again. The medium is then the messengers social media brought about emerging technology and requires people to listen and engage often.People then interpret the messages sent to them from social media in their everyday lives.

Mcluhan believes that humans do not have much free will at all. Whatever society as a whole is using to communicate, they too will use to communicate. Therefore they will adapt to the medium they are using so that they can send and receive messages like everyone else. He considered that there is one truth by observing what has happened overtime. As the medium changes, so does society’s way of communicating. People can only use the medium for which it was created (phones for taking over lines or electronic mail for taking via social networking). If the medium is impersonal (mobile phone, then the message too is impersonal).

The theory is objective in that everyone will act and feel the same no matter what medium they are using provided they are using the same medium. But, Adebiyi and Oyo (2010) posit that many social Network users post messages without taking into consideration their clarity and logic.This is quitetrue; perhaps that is why there is often an existence of conflict among people, group peers and class as a result of not clarity or logic in the message disseminated of which its feedback may be on a contrary.

This technological determinism theory of Mcluhan implies that there is no society (even secondary schools in AkwaIbom State) without a medium of communication or interaction which is not static but keep on changing due to new system of technology developed. As the social system keep changing, the social actors (students, teachers, principals, school aiders) are also influenced by their ways of thinking, feeling, acting or believing and security choice of words hiding under the glues of anonymity. It therefore means that secondary school students of AkwaIbom State are exposed to the simple cause and effect analysis between the innovation of new technology and the change, in their ways of life.

Social media therefore is an institution of the society that has influence people’s attitudes and experiences in more hidden ways. It is a social medium which post social problems that threatens the smooth operations of other units and achievement of its aims and objectives. The social media provide much of the knowledge upon which decisions are made and attitudes are formed. Social media is a social system that can energize people into taking some decisions and actions or otherwise.

Some major functions of a social media

Surveillance Function: Social media can provide a continuous flow of data about the world we live in. They can warn us of dangers of intolerance, student riots, political instability, cultism, drug abuse, sexual harassment, juvenile delinquency and other social vices.

The status conferral function: The media give status to people, events and issues among others. An individual may become popular in the world for good or bad: issues or events that society overlook but have future consequences can be accorded status.

Application of Social Norms: Social norms can be enforced by media for example by promoting values through dramatizing deviance of all kinds, by bringing attention to youth crime, rape, drug abuse, dogmatism which enlighten the general public.

TheNarcotizing Function: Media coverage might narcotize the public so that they become apathetic and decide that they are powerless to do anything.(Latentdysfunction). In other words, the media can be dysfunction stirring up undue anxiety that may lead to violence, suicide and other social vices.

  • The classical theory

This theory emphasis that human beings have free will which enables them to choose between what will give them pleasure and avoid what will cause them pain. So criminal beaviour is a deliberate and conscious action performed for pleasure. To scare people from a deviate, punishment was advocated which emanated pain to the deviance. However, ones would now choose between the pleasure of the crime and the facing of consequences that follow suit. This theory is applicable in the school situation where school rules and regulations are enumerated clearly to be adhering by the social actors. Students are well informed of all dos and don’ts in the school setting for achievement of a set goals and consequences for not conforming to the social orders are well spelt out to their understanding.Those who fear the pain of the consequences or punishment will abide by the school rules and regulations and those who fear not the pain of punishment will deviate and face the music.

1.2.4    Theory of symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969)

This refers to the patterns of communication, interpretation and adjustment between individual both the verbal and nonverbal responses that a listener then delivers are similarity constructed in expectation of how the original speaker will react. The ongoing process is like the game of charades, only it’s a full-fledged conversation.The term symbolic interaction has come into use as a label for a relatively distinctive approach to the study of human life and human conduct. (Blumer,1969). With symbolic interaction, reality is seen as social developed interaction with others. Most symbolic interactionistbelieves a physical reality does indeed exist by an individual’s social definitions, and those social definitions do develop in part or relation to something real. People thus do not respond to this reality directly, but rather to the social under-standing of reality. Humans therefore exist in three realities: a physical objective reality, a social reality and a unique. A unique is a third reality created out of the social reality, a private interpretation of the reality that is shown to the person by others (Charon, 2007) Both individuals and society cannot be separated far from each other for two reasons. One being that both are created though social interaction and two, one cannot be understood in terms without the other. Behaviour is not defined by forces from the environment such as drives or instinct, but rather by a reflective, socially understood meaning of both internet and external incentives that arecurrently presented (Meltzer 1975).

Herbert Blumer (1969) set out three basic premises of the perspective:-

  1. Human act toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things.
  2. The meaning of such things is derived from or arises out of the social interaction that one has with others and the society.
  3. These meanings are handled in and modified through, an interpretation process used by the person in dealing with the things he/she encounters.
    • Statement of the problem

The growth of the school society like any other society lies on the social behavioural pattern of the social actors (teachers, students, principals and other workers) which is developed through social interaction among the social actors in the school system under a well designed norms and cultures that is regarded as a rules and regulations which guides and directs the social roles of the social actors. In addition to this, the government on her part has constructed and re-habilitated classroom blocks in various schools location, free and compulsoryeducation have been launched and implemented, teachers have been trained and employed with improved curriculum in AkwaIbom State to ensure a beneficiary behavioural pattern and academic performance of students, yet all to no avail.

No wander parents, teachers, educational authorities and the government larment so seriously over the increasing rate of deviant behaviour among secondary school students in Nigeria. Students are seen drinking beer and other alcoholic drinks at break times and after school if not on campus, some are seen smoking cigarette if not marijuana or cocaine within and outside school environment. So many students are seen going to school so late when two or three lessons period might have gone. Some even stay at home and go to school anyday they feel like perhaps the day they have tests or examinations to take. Some deceived their parents pretending to go to school but hang around somewhere only to comeback home at closing time of the school. Some are involved in unsafe sex and sex offences which may leads to unwanted pregnancy or contacting viral diseases. Students are becoming stubborn with no respect to school authorities or teachers not to talk of their parents. They form a gang inform of cultism just to fight against any authorities who cross their ways. They even go further by rudely maltreating other students, burgle and steal their properties, extort money and bully innocent students unnecessarily. Above all, gossiping, noise making, loitering, fighting, lying and dishonesty are so rampant among Secondary School Students in recent times.

If we do not find measures to get rid of these anti-social behavioural patterns in a contemporary secondary school students, our future generation of students and the society at large will be devoid of decent and appropriate behaviour. How could parents spend their hard earned money to send their children to school for better tomorrow despite economic difficulties in Nigeria but the expected outcome is unavoidably pains and disappointment due to involvement of these students in deviance and other social vices.

Therefore, the researcher seek to determine if Social Media Usage such as use of mobile phone, facebook, video film, pornography has any relationship on deviant behavior of Secondary School Students in AkwaIbom North-East Senatorial District.

1.4       Purpose of thestudy         

            This study aimed at investigating the relationship between students’ exposure to social media usage and deviantbehaviouramong senior secondary school students in AkwaIbomNorth East Senatorial District.



Specifically the study aimed at the following

  • To examine the relationship between facebook usage and deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students.
  • To determine the relationship between home video usage and deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students.
  • To determine the relationship between pornographic sites usage and deviant behaviour among senior secondary school students.
  • To examine the relationship between mobile phone usage and deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students.

1.5       Research questions

            The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  • What is the relationship between facebook usage and deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students?
  • What is the relationship between home video usageand deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students?
  • What is the relationship between pornographic sites usage and deviant behaviour among senior secondary school student?
  • How does mobile phone usage relate with deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students?

1.6       Statement of hypotheses

The work is designed to test the following hypotheses.

  1. There is no significant relationship between facebook usageand             deviant behaviour among senior secondary school students
  2. There is no significant relationship between home video usageand deviant behaviouramong senior secondary school students.
  3. There is no significant relationship between pornographic site usage and deviant behaviour among senior secondary school students.
  4. There is no significant relationship between mobile phone usage and deviant behaviour among senior secondary school students.

1.7       Significance of the study

            The finding of this research work will be relevant to the social actors in a social system, the guidance counsellors, the social network providers, the educational administrators/planners, scholars and researcher as well as the concerned parents.

This study will acquaint the social actors (school principals, teachers, students) in a social system the credibility of peaceful co-existence thereby cautioning their actions and perceptions during social interaction and relationship.This research work will unveil various social behaviour adopted by students which are inimical to their academic achievement through the cell-phone usage and thereby subjected for guidance counselorsand concerned parents to play their roles in this regards.Social network providers would equally know how to place restrictions on some websites and services based on the age of users.It is hoped that the findings of the study will bridge the gap of lack of sufficient information on the influence of social media on the students’ psychosocialbehaviour.The study will also be beneficial to the scholar and researchers who may desire to embark on experimental studies on a problem for result oriented process. The work could serve as a reference purposes for further researchers and scholars.This study will be beneficial to educational administrators and planners. The finding will guide educational administrators/planners in formulating suitable policies for peaceful co-existence and sustainable education to individual and the society at large.

1.8       Assumptions of the study

This study is based on the following assumption

  1. That the variables of the study will be measurable
  2. That the responses to questionnaire will be true
  3. That the study sample will represent true characteristics of the study population.
  4. That the respondent have enough self-awareness of their media use, interest and motives capable of providing researcher with accurate picture of responses.

1.9       Scope of the study 

            This study is to unveil the relationship between social mediausage and deviant behaviour among senior secondary school students within ninelocal education committees which comprises of Uyo, NsitIbom,NsitUbium, IbesikpoAsutan, Uruan, Itu, Etinan, NsitAtai and IbionoIbom Local Government Areas respectively. The variables considered were facebook usage, home video usage, pornographic sites usage and mobile phone usage as independence variables while deviant behavior is the dependent variable. Only senior secondary three students in twenty-four selected schools among many others in nine Local Education Committees of AkwaIbom North-East Senatorial District will be used for the study.



1.10     Limitation of the study

            This will be provided after post field

1.11     Definition of terms

Deviance:Is any behavioural patterns, actions, reactions that violate social orders, norms, culture and traditions of a social system.

Mobile Phone:Is a digital social medium device that allows electronic calls, text graphics, images and sound into structural computerized environment for social interaction within a geographical area.

Pornographic sites:Is a sexually explicit sites or materials that is designed to arouse the feeling, thought, beliefs and actions of the viewer, reader or listener which could be picture, written (audio, visual or audio-visual) materials.

Social Media:Is any electronic devices that allows global network of social interactions to arouse feelings, thought, beliefs, actions and aspiration either through sound images, graphics, text messages or calls.

Facebook:Is a popular free social network sites that allows registered users to creates profiles, upload photos, videos film, send messages, meet new friends and keep in touch with friends, family, relatives and colleague.

Home Video:Theseare social media electronic appliances that portrays social action, images, feelings, beliefs and aspiration produced and made available in the society by the film industries for interaction purposes.

Social System:Is a network of social interactions organized with its social orders for a specific functions and maintenance of the society.

Deviant Behaviour:These are social behaviour, action, beliefs thought, feelings, reactions in a social environment which are not conformed to the social norms and culture of a social system.


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