This chapter is a review of related literature by authors in the field  of  study.

2.2     TRAINING
Lloyd, and Leslie (2004) define training as “a learing process that involves the acquisition of skill, concept  rules or attitudes to enahce the performance of employee “generally, the new employee’s manager has  primary responsibility  for job  training, they added that sometime this training is delegated to a senior employee in the department regardless, the quality of this initial training can have a significant influence on the employees productivity and toward the job.

Lyod and leslie (2004) also said that the economic social, technological and government changes significantly influences the job objectives and strategies of all organizations. Changes in these areas can  make the skills learned today obsolete in the future.
Also, planned organizational changes and expansion can make its necessary for employees to update their skill or acquire new ones.

Faria (2000)  in  his own view see training as the act of teaching organizational members how to perform their current job and helping them acquire the knowledge and skills, they need to be affective performers.

Lauries, J.M (1994)  in his own part views training as the altering of the of the employees to suit that of the  organization.

Ricky, and Williams, (1989) defined need assessment as a systematic analysis of the specific training must be directed towards the accomplishment of some organizational objectives, such as more efficient production method, improved quality of products or services, or  reduced operating cost.

This mean an organization should commit its resources only to  those training activities that can best help in achieving  its objectives in general, Lloyd and Leslie (2004) said that there are five  methods that can be used together need assessment information, interviews, surveys/questionnaires, observation, focus grow up and document examination.

Interviews with employees can be conducted by specialists in the human resources department and basic questions asked are as follows.

  1. What problems is employee having with his or her job?
  2. What additional skills and/or knowledge does the employee need to better perform the job?
  3. What training does the employee believe  is needed?

Survey and /or questionnaires are also frequently used in need assessment. Normally this involves developing a list of skills requires to perform particular job effectively and asking employees attitude survey can also be used to uncover  training need  most organization brings in an outside party or organization to conduct and analyze employees attitude survey.
To be effective in observation Lloyd and Ledlie  (2004) which says that training we must be conducted by  individual who is trained in observing employee behaviour into specific training need.

Focus group composed of employee from various department and various level within the organization. A specialist in the human resource department or an outside expert can conduct the focus group session focus group topics. Should address issues such as the followings.

  1. What skill/knowledge will  our employees need for our organization to stay competitive over the next five years.
  2. What problem does not organization have that can be solved though training.

Documented examination involves examining organizational records on  desenteeism, turnover, and accident rate to determine if problem exist and whether any problem identified. Can be addressed through training another useful source to examine is performance appraisal information gathered through the organization’s performance appraised system.
After training needs have been determined, objectives must be established for meeting those needs. Unfortunately, many organizational training programmes have no objectives. “Training for training is sake” appears to be the maximum, this Philosophy makes it virtually impossible to  evaluate the strength  and weaknesses of a training progammes.

Effective training objective should state what would result for the organization, department, or individual when the training is completed.

The outcomes should be described in writing training objectives can be categorized as follows:
1.       Institutional objectives
–        What principles, facts and concepts are to be learned in the Training programme?
–        Who is to be trained?
–        When are they to be trained?

2.       Organizational and departmental objectives
What impact will the training have on organizational and departmental outcomes, such as absenteeism, turnover, reduce cost and improved production.
3.       Individual performance and growth objectives
–        What impact will be training  have on the behavioural and attitude outcome of the individual training?
–        What impact  will the training have on the personal growth of the individual training?

When clearly defined objectives are lacking it is impossible to evaluate the programme efficiently, furthermore, there is no basis for selecting appropriate materials, contents or instructional method.

According to Michael Armstrong (2004), several method can be used to satisfy an organization’s training need and accomplish its objectives. Some of the more commonly used methods include on-the-job training, job rotation, apprenticeship training, class room training etc.

A.      On-the-job-training (OJT) 
According to Lloyd and Leslie (2004), on-the-job training is that types of training that require an employee to learn  jobs in the work environment.

This types of training is conducted by a semi or employee or a manager, the employee is shown how to perform the job and allowed to do it under the trainer’s supervision.

One form of  on-the-job training is the rotation. This  is some times called cross training. In job rotation an individual learn several different jobs written the work unit or department and performs each job for a specified time period. One main advantages. For example, when one member of a work unit is absent, another can perform that job.

The advantages of on –the-job-training are the no special facilities are required and the new employee does productive work during the learning process, its major disadvantages is that the pressures of the workplace can cause instruction of the employee to be haphazard or neglected.
Steps of on-the-job-training
In training an employee on the job, the training can use several  steps to ensure that the training  is effective. The steps are summarized as follow.
Step 1: preparation of the  trainee for learning the job.
Step 2: Breakdown of work into components and identification of key points
Step 3: presentation of the operations and knowledge
Step 4: Performance tryout
Step 5: follow up
B.      Apprenticeship training 
Jim Warner (1997) waiters that, apprenticeship training provides beginning workers with comprehensive training  in the practical and theoretical aspects of work required in a  highly skilled occupation.

 Apprenticeship training according to him combines on-the-job-train and classroom training to prepare workers for a job e.g. bricklayers, mechanist worker, computer operator and laboratory technician. About two thirds of apprentice able occupations are in the construction and manufacturing trade, but apprentices also  work in such  diverse fields as electronics, the services industry, public administration and medical and  healthcare.

US department of labour’s office of apprenticeship training employer and  labour services provide the following minimum standard for apprenticeship programmes as provided by Lloyd and Leslie (2004).

  1. Free and fair opportunity of apply for apprenticeship.
  2. A schedule of work processes in which an apprenticeship is to receive training  and experience on the job.
  3. Organization instruction designed  to provide apprentices with knowledge in technical subjects related to their trade (i.e. a minimum of 144 hours per  year  is normally  considered necessary)
  4. A progressive increasing schedule of wage
  5. Proper supervision of on-the-job-training with advantage facilities to train apprenticeship.
  6. Periodic evaluation of the apprentice’s progress, both in job performance and related instruction, with appropriate record maintained.
  7. No discrimination in any phase of selection, employment or training.

c.       CLASS-ROOM TRAINING (Instruction) 
Sola Fayana (2005) writes that, through classroom instruction, employees acquire knowledge and skills in a classroom setting. This instruction may take place within the organization or outside  of it, such was when employees are encouraged to take cause at  colleges and  universities. May organizations actually established their own formal instructional divisions some even called colleges to provide needed classroom instructions. …


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