THE NUTRITIVE VALUES OF DRIED CAMEROON PEPPER CAPSICUM ANNUM FRUITS MEAL IN RABBITS

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ABSTRACT
The study was carried out to access the nutritive values of Dried Cameroon pepper fruit meal on the performance characteristics, Haematology and carcass characteristics of rabbits fed at varying levels. With limited information on the impacts as well as the side effects of Cameroon pepper on rabbits coupled with the ban on the use of antibiotics in the production of animal feeds due to its residual effects, the need for alternative and natural occurring growth promoters to be discovered necessitates this research. The research specifically aimed at assessing the impacts of Cameroon pepper based diets on the growth performance of weanling rabbits, assess the impacts of feeding rabbits with Cameroon pepper based diets on the their Haematology and serum indices as well as assessing the carcass qualities of meats obtained from the rabbits that were fed with Cameroon pepper based diets at varying levels. A total of 36 unsexed weanlings of cross bred rabbits with weights averaging 0.85kg were used for the study.

The animals were obtained from reputable farms in Uyo, Itu, Ibiono Ibom, and Ikono Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom state and subjected to two weeks of quarantine within which they were treated with antibiotics and prepared for the exercise. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used for the study and the test material (Cameroon Pepper) was obtained from the nearby market. The animals were then fed with the treatment at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% respectively. The result obtained indicated that total feed intake, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), cost of feed consumed per rabbits per day, daily protein intake, protein efficiency ratio, metabolizable energy intake and cost of feed per kg body weight of the rabbits fed varying Cameroon pepper level all varied significantly (p<0.05) from the control while parameters such as total weight gain, daily weight gain and feed efficiency for rabbits fed varying level of CPBD were all similar to those obtained for the control diets., The results obtained for Haematology indicated that Packed Cell Volume, RBC, Platelets, Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophil, Haemoglobin concentration, MCV, MCH and MCHC of the rabbits fed 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% CPBD did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference from those obtained from rabbits in the control diets with 0% CPBD. Conversely, results obtained for white blood cell, neutrophils and lymphocytes all varied significantly (p<0.05) from those obtained for rabbits in the control diets. Similarly, values obtained for carcass quality showed that, chest thorax, trunk and % carcass from rabbits fed 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% CPBD was significantly (p<0.05) different from those obtained for rabbits in the control diets whereas values obtained for forelimbs, hind limbs, neck, liver, kidney, lungs, heart abdominal fats, head and body live weight were all similar to those obtained for rabbits in the control diets. The result obtained for lipid properties of the rabbits showed that the Cameroon pepper levels significantly (p<0.05) affected the total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein of the rabbits while triglyceride level and very low density lipoprotein were not affected by the varying levels of Cameroon pepper in the feeds. Also, the digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein were affected by the addition of Cameroon Pepper into the feed while Ether Extracts and Crude Fibre were not affected. The study concludes that, the addition of Cameroon pepper to the feeds of rabbits at varying level affects the level of white blood cell counts positively which is a good indicator of the animals’ ability to resist disease infection. The total cholesterol level was also affected by the varying Cameroon pepper levels which are good baseline for the control of certain heart diseases. The study recommended the introduction of mild concentration of Cameroon pepper into feeds of rabbits as its roles in self-defense is evident in the amount of white blood cell concentration when Cameroon pepper is added to the feeds.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – xii
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – – xiii
List of Acronyms – – – – – – – – – xiv

1.0 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of problem – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Objective of the study – – – — – – 3
1.4 Significance of the study – – – – – – 3
1.5 Scope of the study – – – – – – 4

2.0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Rabbits – – – – – – – – 5
2.2 Historical Background – – – — — 6
2.3 Scientific Classification of Rabbit – – – – – – 10
2.4 Breeds of Rabbits – – — – – – – 10
2.4.1 New Zealand white – – — – – – – – 10
2.4.2 California White – – – – – – – 11
2.4.3 Flemish Giant – – – — – – – – 11
2.5 World Statistics of Rabbit Production – – – – – 11
2.6 Nutrition and Feeding of Rabbit – – – – – 12
2.6.1 Anatomy and Physiology – – – – – – 12
2.6.2 Feeding Behaviour – – – – – – – – 15
2.6.3 Feeding and Environment – — – – – – 17
2.6.4 Nutritional Needs – – – — — – 17
2.6.5 Energy and Crude Fibre – – – – – – – 20
2.6.6 Minerals and Vitamins – – – – – – – 21
2.7 Production and Management of Rabbits – – – – – 22
2.7.1 Rabbit Housing – – – – – – – – 23
2.8 General symptoms of digestive problems in Rabbit – – 23
2.9 Cameroon pepper (Capsicum annum) – – – – – 25
2.9.1 Scientific classification – – – – – – – 27
2.9.2 Uses in Traditional African Society – – – – – – 27
2.9.3 Nutritional Composition and Activities in Animal nutrition. – – – 27
2.9.4 Active ingredients in Cameroon pepper – – – — – 28
2.9.5 Health risks of Cameroon pepper – – – – – – 29
2.10 Chemical structure of Capsaicinoids – – – – – – 30

  1. 11 Properties of Capsicin – – – – – – – 30
    2.11.1 Chemistry of capsaicin – – – – – – – 31
    2.12 Uses of capsaicinoids – – – – – – – 31
    2.12.1 Non-lethal force – – – – – – – – 32
    2.12.2 Possible drug abuse deterrent – – – – – – – 32
    2.12.3 Pest deterrent – – – – – – – – – 33
    2.13 Nutrient Composition of Cameroon Pepper – – – – 33
    2.14 The Chemistry of Cameroon Pepper – – – – – 34
    2.15 The Health Benefits of Cameroon Pepper – – – – – 35
    2.16 Importance of Rabbits production – – – – – – 38
    2.17 Hematological Assessment of Rabbits – – – – – 39
    2.18 Possible Use of Herbs and Spices in Livestock Production – – – 40
    2.18.1 Herbs and Spices as Appetite and Digestion Stimulants- – – – 40
    2.18.2 Antimicrobial Action of Herbs and Spices – – – – – 41
    2.18.3 Anti-Inflammatory Action – – – – – – – 42
    2.18.4 Antioxidative Action – — – – — – – – 43
    2.18.5 Immunostimulant Function – – – – – – – 43
    2.19.0 General Review of the Effects of Herbs and Spices on Monogastric Animals- 43
    2.19.1 Effects of herbs and spices on Growth Performance of monogastric animals- 43
    2.19.2 Effects of herbs and spices on haematological parameters of Monogastric animals- 47
    2.19.3 Effect of herbs and spices on carcass characteristics on monogastric animals- 49
    2.19.4 Effects of herbs and spices on economics of production of monogastric animals- 49
    2.19.5 Effects of the use of herbs and spices in ruminant nutrition – – – 50

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Study Area – – – – – – – – – 52
3.2 Experimental Animals and Management. – – – – – 52
3.3 Experimental design and layout – – – — – – 52

3.4 Procurement and Processing of Test Materials – – – – 53
3.5 Proximate analysis of the Cameroon pepper – – – – – 53
3.6 Experimental diets – – – – – – – – 54
3.7 Experimental procedure – – – – – – – 55
3.8 Parameters Measured – – – – – – – 55
3.8.1 Growth performance of Rabbits fed with Cameroon pepper at varying percentages- 55
3.8.2 Haematological studies of Rabbits fed with varying levels of Cameroon
Pepper based diet – – – – – – – – 57

3.8.3 Carcass characteristics of Rabbits fed with varying level of Cameroon
pepper based diet – – – – — — – – 58

3.9 Statistical Analysis – – – – – – – – 58
3.10 Conclusion and Recommendations – – – – – – 58
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – – 59
4.1.1 Growth Performance Characteristics of Rabbits Fed Varying Levels of
Cameroon Pepper Based Diet (CPBD) – – – – – 59

4.1.2 Haematology of Rabbits fed varying levels of CPBD- – – – 61

4.1.3 Lipid properties of Rabbits fed varying levels of CPBD – – – 63
4.1.4 Carcass percentage of Rabbits fed varying levels of CPBD – – – 64

4.1.5 Digestibility of Nutrients for Rabbits fed with varying Cameroon Pepper levels- 65

4.2 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 66
4.2.1 Growth Performance of Rabbits fed varying levels of CPBD- – 66
4.2.2 Haematology – – – – – – – – – 68
4.2.3 Lipid Properties – — – – – — – 72
4.2.4 Digestibility of nutrients in feed – – – – – – 73
4.2.5 Carcass Quality of Rabbits – – — – – – – 73

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary – – – – — – – – 75
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 76
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – – 76
REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Normal range of hematological values for Rabbits – – – 40
Table 3.1: Layout of Experimental Treatment – – – – – 53
Table 3.2: Proximate Composition of the Cameroon Pepper – – – 53
Table 3.3 Composition of Experimental Ration – – – – – 54
Table 4.1: Growth Performance of Rabbits under varying level of CPBD – 59
Table 4.2: Heamatology and Serum Indices – – – – – 62

Table 4.3: Lipid profile of Rabbits fed with varying levels of
Cameroon pepper base diet – – – – – – – 63

Table 4.4: Evaluation of Internal Organ/Carcass Parameters of Rabbits fed with
varying levels of CPBD- – – – – – 64

Table 4.5: Digestibility of Nutrients in feed – – – – – 65

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Pictures of Cameroon Pepper – – – – – – 26
Figure 2: Chemical Structure of different Capsaicinoids and its Analogues – 30
Figure 3: Regions of molecules of capsaicin – – – – – 31

ACRONYMS

CPBD – Cameroon Pepper Based Diets
WBC – White Blood Cells
RBC – Red Blood Cells
PCV – Packed Cell Volume
MCV – Mean Corpuscular Volume
MCHC – Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration
FCR – Feed Conversion Rate
HDL – High Density Lipid
LDL – Low Density Lipid
VLDL – Very Low Density Lipid
MCH – Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin

THE NUTRITIVE VALUES OF DRIED CAMEROON PEPPER CAPSICUM ANNUM FRUITS MEAL IN RABBITS