ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF HONEY

1142

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial activity of honey on some microorganisms was studied using extract concentrations of 75%, 50% and 25% respectively. Result of the study showed that only Bacillus out of the five organisms studied showed an inhibition of 15mm at 75% concentration. The other organisms including Bacillus sp.was resistant to all other extract concentrations. This could be as a result of impurities in the honey, the diluting solvent, changes in the contents of the honey and the types ofhoney used.Therefore, the study recommends further studies on individual contents of the honey and other solvents should be used in the extraction anddilution of the honey.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION.. iii

CERITIFICATION.. iv

DEDICATION.. v

ACKNOWLEGEMENT.. vi

ABSTRACT.. vii

CHAPTER ONE.. 1

INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.. 1

1.2        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM… 2

1.3.1 AIM… 3

1.3.2 OBJECTIVES. 3

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.. 3

1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS. 3

CHAPTER TWO.. 5

LITERATURE REVIEW… 5

2.0 HISTORY OF HONEY.. 5

2.1 PROPERTIES/ COMPOSITION OF HONEY.. 6

2.2 ENZYMES FOUND IN HONEY.. 7

2.3 PHYSICOSHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HONEY.. 8

2.4 MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF HONEY.. 9

2.5 PROTEIN IN HONEY.. 9

2.6 TEST ORGANISMS OF CLINICAL IMPORTANCE.. 10

CHAPTER THREE.. 14

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD.. 14

3.1 STUDY AREA.. 14

3.2 COLLECTION OF SAMPLES. 15

3.3 COLLECTION OF TEST ORGANISMS. 15

3.4 PREPARATION OF PURE CULTURE.. 15

3.5 IDENTIFICATION TESTS OF COLLECTED ORGANISMS. 15

3.5.1 GRAM REACTION TEST.. 16

3.5.2 INDOLE TEST.. 17

3.5.3 METHYL RED (MR) TEST.. 17

3.5.4 VOGES-PROSKAUER (VP) TEST.. 18

3.5.5 CITRATE UTILIZATION TEST.. 19

3.5.6 UREASE TEST.. 19

3.5.7 OXIDASE TEST.. 20

3.5.8 CATALASE TEST.. 21

3.5.9 SUGAR FARMENTATION TEST.. 21

3.6 PREPARATION OF SAMPLE SOLUTION.. 22

3.7 PREPARATION OF MEDIA.. 22

3.8 SENSITIVITY TESTS OF ORGANISMS. 22

3.8.1 PREPARATION OF MACFARLAND STANDARD.. 22

3.8.2 PREPARATION OF MICROBIAL SUSPENSION.. 23

3. 8.3 PREPARATION OF SEEDED PLATES. 23

3.8.4 CREATION OF WELL ON SEEDED PLATES. 23

3.8.5 THE WELL DIFFUSION METHOD OF SENSITIVITY TEST.. 23

3.9 MEASUREMENT OF INHIBITION ZONES. 24

3.10 INCUBATION OF SENTIVITY PLATES. 24

CHAPTER FOUR.. 25

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 25

4.1 RESULTS. 25

4.2 DISCUSSION.. 26

CHAPTER FIVE.. 28

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECO.. 28

MMENDATION.. 28

5.1 CONCLUSION.. 28

5.2 RECOMMENDATION.. 28

REFERENCES. 29

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Antimicrobial agents are of great importance in reducing the burden of various infectious diseases. But then, many pathogens have developed resistance against these agents and they are increasing and spreading as the day goes by. Resistance against antimicrobial agent has caused a serious threat to various antibiotics and public health of the world, owing to this new antimicrobial strategy are urgently been sorted out by researchers and as such has led us to the re-evaluation of the usage of ancient remedies.

Treatment of infections using natural methods has been in practice since the origin of mankind, and honey produced by ApisMelifera(A.Melifera) is one of the oldest traditional medicines considered in treating several human ailments. The use of natural components in medical treatment and in the preservation of food are becoming effective.Currently, many researchers have reported that natural unheated honey has some broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity when tested against oral bacteria, pathogen and spoilage bacteria, scientist have found out that honey is a nutrient, an ointment and a drug and as thus an alternative branch of medicine called apitherapy, has been developed. Following the increase inthe resistance of pathogenic bacteria, use of natural compounds is becoming as interesting factors.

Presently, honey has become an abundant natural product of which the Leptospermum scoparium(L. Scoparium) honey is  best known with an inhibitory effect on about 60 species of bacteria. At the present, numbers of honey have standardized antibacterial activities. Also, honey has a hydroscopic nature giving it the ability to draw moisture out of the environment and dehydrate bacteria. Its high sugar content and low PH is capable of inhibiting microbial growth.

Throughout history, honey has always been described as a natural product with great importance for human health. It has a good culinary quality and also contains remarkable nutritional and therapeutic properties (Siddiqui et al.; 2016; Marfoet al.; 2016; Bulicaet al.; 2020; Kenget al.; 2017).

Researchers found that the alternative usage of natural components are effective and reducing the dependency of some synthetic drugs.

Due to the increase in pathogenic bacteria, interest in the use of natural components is becoming an important factor.

Infection rates are currently increasing at an alarming rate in both immune-compromised and healthy people (levy et al.; 2004).

Preventive measures such as antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral are administered (levy et al.; 2004).

One of the medicines that have been used traditionally is honey (S. Mandal et al.; 2009).

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Antimicrobial resistance is not a current trend but the number of resistant organisms, and the breath of resistance in single organisms are unprecedented and on a high rate of increase. Multiple resistant organisms render therapy precarious, costly and sometimes unsuccessful. This makes the effectiveness of antibiotics to diminish which poses a very serious threat to public health.Therefore, an alternative microbial strategyare needed and thus has led to re-evaluation of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies such as honey.

  1. .0AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.3.1 AIM

The aim of this research work is to explore the antimicrobial properties of honey.