CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The project approach is an in-depth investigation of a real-world issue deserving of a student’s time and effort (Chard, 2011). PBL (project-based learning) is a teaching style in which students gain essential skills by completing real-world projects (Holubova, 2008). Teaching tactics that enable teachers to help students via in-depth investigation in the actual world are known as the project learning approach (Chard, 2011). Students learn to take responsibility for their own learning via Project Learning, and this instruction helps students lay a firm basis on which they may collaborate with others throughout their lives. This strategy focuses on creating a thorough unit around an activity that can be done in or out of the classroom (Pattnaik,Chakradeo and Banerjee, 2014). Project learning, according to Knoll (1997), is a method for students to (a) gain independence and responsibility, and (b) exercise social and democratic behaviors. Project learning was introduced into the curriculum to assist kids learn at school, study independently, and blend theory and practice, according to Knoll. The project approach is a goal-oriented, challenge-based activity that promotes successful and efficient cooperation by giving students’ actions more weight than the teacher’s information communication (Szállassy, 2008). Project-based learning is innovative because it emphasizes cooperative learning. Students also produce concrete outcomes to demonstrate what they have learned. Students employ technology and investigation to answer to a complicated topic, problem, or challenge. PBL focuses on student-centered independent review and group study, as this one in control, with the teacher serving as adviser. Instead of classroom-based assignments, activities try to replicate real-world professional duties as closely as feasible. This encourages scholarly interpretations and allows students to take on several roles and build information that can be applied in more than one way. Finally, instead of a single proper solution by imposing predefined rules and regulations, it allows for a range and variety of results that are aware of the diverse ways. 1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM When project learning is implemented successfully, instructors and students are driven to actively participate and grow as individuals and collaborators in generating high-quality work that benefits them (Chard, 2011). Project learning, on the other hand, does not gather knowledge in a sequential manner, and if it is not effectively planned and implemented, it may not be completed on time. Pattnaik, Chakradeo, and Banerjee contend that the project learning technique has a number of drawbacks (2014). Projects are used as a teaching method in education, as well as for accomplishing outcomes and learning new abilities (Holzbaur, 2010). In addition, Holzbaur contends that projects are an effective way for teaching, training, and research in education. However, Holzbaur pointed out that project preparation and execution took a lot of time, as well as academic and pedagogical problems that need a methodical approach. Students, in particular, tended to pursue questions without examining their merits, they tended to pursue questions that were based on personal preference rather than questions that were warranted by the scientific content of the project, they struggled to understand the concept of controlled environments, they created research designs that were inadequate given their research questions, they developed incomplete data collection plans, and they frequently misunderstood the concept of controlled environments. Therefore against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the effect of the effect of project based learning on  student academic performance 1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of project based learning on academic achievement of secondary school students, specifically the study intends to: i.          Determine whether project based learning is more effective than the traditional method during instruction. ii.        Ascertain the how project base learning impact student academic achievement.

iii.      Discuss the challenges associated to project based learning.

iv.      Proffer solution to for effective utilization of project based teaching and learning in secondary school.


HO1:Project based learning is not more effective than the traditional method of instruct

HO2: There is no significant impact of project based learning on student academic achievement