CO-INFECTION OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN PUPILS ATTENDING SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

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CO-INFECTION OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN PUPILS ATTENDING SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study

 

Urinary tract infections (UTI) represent one of the most common infections encountered in medical practice today and occurring from the neonate to the geriatric age group (Kunin, 1994). Despite the widespread availability of antibiotics, UTI remains the most common bacterial infection in the human population (Tambekar et al., 2006). About one hundred and fifty million individuals had been reported to be affected by UTIs annually worldwide (Gupta et al., 2001). Urinary tract infections occur as a result of the microbial colonization of urine and the invasion of any structure of the urinary tract by microbial organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and/or parasites (Stamm, 1999; Stamm, 2008).

Urinary tract infections associated with Schistosoma haematobium affects the entire genitourinary tract (Ifeanyi et al., 2009). Bacterial infections are often recurrent and important in the prepatent period of urinary schistosomiasis which may be instrumental in precipitating renal failure (Ifeanyi et al, 2009). In urinary schistosomiasis, secondary bacterial infections are common and in men can involve the seminal vesicles, spermatic cord, and to a lesser extent, the prostate. In women, infection can involve the cervix and fallopian tubes and can cause infertility (Ifeanyi et al., 2009).

 

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the commonest microbial infectious disease in community practice with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. Urinary tract infections are described as bacteriuria with urinary symptoms. Urinary tract infection can affect lower and sometimes both lower and upper urinary tracts. The term cystitis had been used to define the lower UTI infection and is characterized by symptoms such as dysuria, frequency, urgency, and suprapubic tenderness. The presence of the lower UTI symptoms does not exclude the upper UTI which is often present in most UTI cases (Sobel and Kaye, 2010). The treatment of UTI can be classified into uncomplicated and complicated on the basis of their choice of treatment (Sabra and Abdel-Fattah, 2012). Urinary Tract Infection is more common in females than in males as female urethra structurally found less effective for preventing the bacterial entry (Warren et al., 1999). It may be due to the proximity of the genital tract and urethra and adherence of urothelial mucosa to the mucopolysaccharide lining (Schaeffer et al., 2001: Akortha and Ibadin, 2008).

The other main factors which make females more prone to UTI are pregnancy and sexual activity (Arul et al., 2012). In pregnancy, the physiological increase in plasma volume and decrease in urine concentration develop glycosuria in up to 70% women which ultimately leads to bacterial growth in urine (Lucas and Cunningham 1993). Sexual activity in females also increases the risk of urethra contamination as the bacteria could be pushed into the urethra during sexual intercourse as well as bacteria being massaged up the urethra into the bladder during child birth (Ebie et al., 2001: Kolawole et al.,2009).

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CO-INFECTION OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN PUPILS ATTENDING SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA