Developing a Hybrid Contention-Addressing Algorithm to Enhance Energy Efficiency

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Abstract:

Efficient power management is a critical aspect in the design of Wireless Local Area Network Medium Access Control (WLAN MAC) algorithms for wireless devices. Prolonging battery life necessitates the development of more effective power management schemes, considering significant contributors to energy overhead such as carrier sensing by WLAN modules, false wake-ups, collisions, and the number of contention rounds. Researchers have introduced various strategies using low-power wake-up radios for carrier sensing, yielding positive outcomes.

This thesis assesses the energy efficiency and latency performance of an IEEE 802.11 wake-up based radio network uplink utilizing the Hybrid Contention-Addressing Algorithm. Within this algorithm, a Wake-up radio (WuR) monitors the channel and activates its co-located WLAN module when the channel becomes available for transmission. The determination of the station (STA) that awakens for packet transmission is achieved through distributed contention. However, the approach presented in this thesis deviates from previous methods by employing each contention round to select and queue a set of STAs instead of just one.

Subsequently, the chosen and queued STAs progress to the addressing stage, ready to transmit upon promptly receiving the wake-up message (WuM). The challenge of false wake-ups, stemming from latency in wake-up and the delay between sleep and wake-up of consecutive STAs, is addressed by an addressing technique. This technique broadcasts an ACK frame modulated with a WuM containing the unique address of the next STA scheduled for transmission. Consequently, simultaneous wake-up of two stations or waking up one station while another is still in the waking process is prevented.

Extensive analysis validates that the Hybrid Contention-Addressing Algorithm (HCA-CSAM/CA) effectively reduces energy overhead by up to 97%. This reduction leads to a remarkable increase of 60 hours in battery lifetime and a substantial 68.3% decrease in latency when compared to the Energy-Efficient Spatial Opportunistic Contention (ESOC) approach. Notably, the HCA-CSAM/CA strikes a superior balance between energy consumption and throughput.

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