ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ARTISANAL FISHING ENTERPRISES IN GUMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                 

1.1       Background Information     –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Problem Statement   –           –           –           –           –           –           –          4

1.3       Objectives of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.4       Research Hypothesis           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.5       Justification of the Study    –           –           –           –           –           –           6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Genesis of Artisanal Fishing          –           –           –           –           –           9

  • Artisanal (capture) Fisheries Versus Fish Culture          –           –           9
    • Socio-economic Characteristics of Artisanal Fishing

Operators in Relation to their Living Environment        –           –           10

  • Artisanal Fishing Practices in Nigeria      –           –           –           –           13
    • Fish Trade in Nigeria –        –               –           –           –           14
    • Problems Associated with Artisanal Fishing in Nigeria — 16
    • Indigenous Fisheries Resource Management –    – –          17
    • Theoretical Framework on Agricultural Production –             18
    • Empirical Studies in Production and Economics of Fishing Operations. – – –                 21

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY          

3.1       The Study Area         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

  • Sampling Procedure –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25
    • Data Collection        –   –           –           –           –           26
    • Analysis of Data       –      –           –           –           –           27
    • Analytical Framework         –            –           –           –           27
      • Cost and Return Analysis   –             –           –           –           27
      • Multiple Regression Analysis        –           –           –           28

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Socio-economic Characteristics of Respondents –         –           –           34

4.2       Fishing Activities of Respondents –          –           –           –           –           38

4.3       Factors Influencing Artisanal Fishing       –            –           40

4.4       Cost and Return Analysis in Artisanal Fishing Enterprise –     43

4.5       Resource Use Efficiency in Artisanal Fishing Enterprise    –   45

4.6       Constraints to Exploitation of Natural Fishing Sites. –  –    49

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

     RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary of Findings          –           –           –           –           –           –           50

5.2       Conclusion    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

5.3       Recommendations   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

            REFERENCES          –        –           –           –           –           55

            APPENDICES           –                      –           –           –           62

LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                                          Page

1.1       Total Quantity of Annual Trade of Fishery Commodity by Nigeria-3

2.1       Population of Fishermen in Nigeria. –       –           –           –           –           13

2.2       Total Quantity of International Trade of Fishery Commodity by Nigeria.  –  –           15

  • Total Value of International Trade of Fishery Commodity by Nigeria.      1
  • Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Selected Socio-economic Characteristics  — –  — – – — –   – 36
  • Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Occupation              37
    • Distribution of Respondents by Fishing Practices Used      39
    • Distribution of Respondents by Availability of  Storage,Credit and Extension Services   –           40

4.5       Labour Supply and Utilization by Respondents             –     41

4.6       Cost and Return Analysis   –           –           –           –           –           –           44

4.7       Regression Results   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           46

4.8       Frequency Distribution of Constraints associated with Artisanal        Fishing          –               –           –           –           49

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                                                                                       

1.         Map of Guma Local Government Area    –          –           –           –           65

 
LIST OF CHARTS

Chart                                                                                                                                    

4.1       Seasonal Calendar of Respondents           –           –           –           –           43

LIST OF APPENDICES

i.          Questionnaire           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

 
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
  1. Background Information

One of the major roles played by fisheries in the economy of Nigeria is its contribution to the dietary needs of the populace. Increased food production, both in quantity and quality is necessary to build a healthy nation. Animal protein is essential for proper growth, repair and maintenance of body organs and tissues (Moses, 1983). Proteins obtained from livestock such as cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and poultry in tropical regions are generally very expensive. Fish protein contains the essential amino acids such as methionine, lysine, tryptophan which are absent in proteins of plant origin (Lawal, 2002). Fish oil contains unsaturated fatty acids, which are low in cholesterol, and thus a regular intake of fish oil harbours lower risk of heart attack, which might result from deposition of cholesterol in blood vessels. According to Madu (2000), fish is eaten all over the world and no religious or cultural restrictions are known to forbid its consumption.

Lawal (2002) reported that about 35 percent of the world’s fish catch is used for the production of fishmeal and oil. The greatest amount of the products is fed to poultry. Fishmeal product has high protein content (60-75%), making it a valued ingredient usually commanding a higher price than any other protein concentrate except milk powder. Fish oil is a valuable raw material for hydrogenation and is used in direct human consumption as margarine. Most of the world’s fishmeal is made from pelagic species, rich in oil. Nigeria generates about 10 million US dollars annually in foreign exchange through the exportation of shrimps (Mabawonku, 1986).  Apart from the dietary use, production of livestock feeds and earnings of foreign exchange, fisheries offer direct and indirect employment opportunities to the people of the country (Asaku, 1997). Direct employment from fisheries involves those who are directly engaged in fish production, processing and marketing. Fisheries offer indirect employment to people who are engaged in the production of fishing inputs and fishing vessels, floats, sinkers, nets, lanterns, matchets and fish finders. Others indirectly employed in fishery industry include fish canners, owners of restaurants and manufacturers of livestock feeds.

The demand for fish has been rising rapidly in Nigeria as a result of increase in population, per capita income and price of alternative sources of animal protein. However the domestic supply of fish does not satisfy the demand. Attempts to meet the demand have seen the country resorting to importation of fish.  The projected demand for fish in Nigeria in the year 2000 was 2,542 million tones. This figure rose to about 2854.6 million tones, an increase of about 12.3 percent in 2003 (FAO, 2004). This figure when compared with total fish supply will clearly show that there is fish demand-supply deficit in the country.

Many countries both import and export fish products. Trade tends to flow not only from less developed to more developed countries, but also between developed countries (FAO, 2004). In terms of export value, the total world trade of fish and fish products reached US $ 58.2 billion in 2002 (FAO, 2004). In terms of quantity, developed countries imported over 32 million tones in 2002, of which 68 percent was for human consumption (FAO, 2004). Imports for developed countries stood at 19 million tonnes, of which 47 percent consisted of fish for food.

The total quantity of international trade of fishery commodity by Nigeria as released by FAO reports (2000 and 2004) for the years 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2994 showed that imports of fishery products for the years amounted to 412,498, 442,331, 464,519, 646,557 and 814,461 tonnes respectively. This is in comparism with the export figure of 3,232, 656, 4,233, 249 and 12,016 tonnes for year 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2004 respectively (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1: Total quantity of annual trade of fishery commodity by

                                    Nigeria (Metric tonnes)

Year Imports Exports
1997 412,498 3,232
1998 442,331 656
1999 464,519 4,233
2000 646,557 249
2004 814,461 12,016

Source: FAO Reports 2000 and 2004

In Nigeria, the artisanal fishery is made up of coastal canoe fishery, brackish water canoe fishery, riverine and lake canoe fishery and the flood pond fishery (Asaku, 1997). Mabawonku (1986) reported that artisanal fishery sector accounts for about 87 per cent of the total fish production in Nigeria. In Benue State, Asaku (1997) reported that the bulk of the fish supply come from fresh water systems. This bulk amounts to 98 percent while the remaining 2 percent is from culture fishery and imported frozen fish.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ARTISANAL FISHING ENTERPRISES IN GUMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA