1.1 Background to the study
In recent decades, there have been large gains, no doubt in comparable levels, in basic rights and opportunities, in life expectancy and enrollment ratio for
women. But despite these gains, the stark reality has not changed. There still are larger gender disparities in basic human rights, resources, and economic opportunity, and in political rights –the world over. Gender roles and relations to a large extent shape the process of urbanization. The growth of cities and towns cause social, economic and environmental change that one go beyond city boundaries (Dankelman, 2003).The term ‘gender’ refers to economic, social and cultural attribute and opportunities associated with being male or female (UN-Habitat, 2003).
Gender discrimination is the practice of letting a person’s sex unfairly become a factor when deciding who receives a job, promotion or other employment benefit. It most one
acts women who feel they have been unfairly discriminated against, in favor of men.Women face job discrimination and segregation. They consistently find themselves in low-status, low-paying jobs with few opportunities for advancement. They are overrepresented among part-time workers and informal sector operators. Moreover, the kind of paid work that women are more likely to be involved in pays less than the jobs that
are predominantly male oriented.
Discrimination in workplaces is now one of the most debated issues around the world. There had been innumerous findings on and strong charges against
discrimination (Kelan, 2009). In particular, gender bias has become a common occurrence everywhere in most of the developing countries (Kelan, 2009).
Some reports also show that such discrimination happens even in developed countries, though the number of facts may be less compared to those in the
developing and least developed countries. There are different forms in which discrimination may be evident at workplaces. In spite of the number of findings and reported cases in governmental and non-governmental institutions, the issue still remains beyond control. Environment around the voice, the socioeconomic
status of women, the religious values and restrictions and above all the social psychology of the people can be figured out as the principal causes behind biasness (Sue, 2005). Unwillingness and lack of attention and supervision by the government adds to this to a great extent (Kelan, 2009). All these have led the issue being complicated more and more. It would be easier to realize the problems in implementing non-discrimination at workplaces in the light of the forms and specific aspects of biasness that women encounter generally (Kelan, 2009). Victims of gender discrimination lose motivation and morale necessary to perform their jobs effectively. According to a report written by Dankelman (2003), gender bias also leads to a loss in productivity. Things that may lead to this loss of morale and motivation could include jokes about an employee’s gender
that imply inferiority, offensive jokes of a suggestive or sexual nature and jokes implying that an employee’s work is sub-par due to his or her gender. Though, Federal law prohibits this type of workplace harassment, whether by superiors or coworkers.

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