1.1 Background of the study
Education is widely acknowledged as one of the most important tools for promoting economic development since it encompasses a variety of procedures that individuals go through to help them develop and utilize their potential (Adeyemi and Adu, 2010). Furthermore, according to Okeke (2007), education gives individuals with the information, skills, and attitudes essential for productive life.
The basic goal of teaching at whatever level is to make a significant change in the student (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011). Teachers should use appropriate teaching approaches that best fit specific objectives and contribute to improved academic achievements to assist the process of information exchange. In the past, many teachers used teacher-centered approaches to convey information to students, which were in contrast to student-centered methods.
Questions concerning the efficacy of teaching methods on student learning have piqued attention in the field of educational research up to now (Hightower et al., 2011). Furthermore, teaching and learning research is continuously attempting to determine the amount to which various teaching strategies boost student learning. Surprisingly, many students’ poor academic performance is mostly attributable to teachers’ use of inadequate teaching methods to impart knowledge to pupils (Adunola, 2011). Many studies on the efficacy of teaching techniques reveal that the quality of instruction is frequently mirrored in student accomplishment. Teaching, according to Ayeni (2011), is a process that entails inducing desired changes in learners in order to attain particular results. Adunola (2011) believes that in order for teaching techniques to be effective, instructors must be used to a variety of teaching approaches that recognize the enormity of the broad topics to be taught.
Science education’s key aims are to enhance students’ understandings of biological systems and scientific inquiry processes, to equip students to make responsible judgments regarding science-related societal concerns, and to enlighten them about future science professions (Bybee, Carlson-Powell and Trowbridge, 2007). Different learning settings, instructional methodologies, and strategies are crucial things to consider in school biology education in order to achieve these aims. Teaching, for example, is defined by Joyce and Weil (2011) as information processing models, personal models, social interaction models, and behavior modification models.
Given the wide range of objectives that biology aspires to meet in schools, the inclusion of some biology knowledge in the school curriculum is becoming increasingly evident. The development of this biological information and comprehension should not be left to chance. As a result, a fundamental framework of biology must be set at the senior secondary school level, not just for those interested in pursuing a career in biology, but also as part of the educational foundation that every student should have before leaving school.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students offering biology in senior secondary school who have a mismatch between the teaching techniques employed and their preferred learning pattern frequently feel as though their learning demands are being satisfied using a foreign language. Because of the mismatch, some students have difficulties understanding what is being taught, resulting in poorer marks (Odundo, 2003).
Biology, like other topics, frequently records low student performance in both internal and external tests, according to Tella (2010). Many factors contributed to students’ poor exam performance, including the use of outdated teaching materials and methods such as chalkboards and outdated textbooks, inability of teachers to convey concepts to students, lack of teaching skills and competence, lack of teaching materials and necessary equipment, and lack of active participation of students in biology.
The lack of interactive ICT software tools, in which a student interacts with and is led by visual equipment geared at accomplishing particular instructional goals, exacerbates the issues confronting biology teaching methodologies (Onasanya, 2002).
In this context, the purpose of this study is to provide a critical assessment of the link between teaching methods and secondary school biology students’ academic achievement, with a focus on five randomly selected secondary schools in Benin Metropolis, Edo state.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this study was to explore the relationship between teaching methods and academic performance of secondary school students in biology. Other specific objectives are:
i. To investigate if there is any significant relationship between teacher-centered method and students’ academic performance in biology.
ii. To determine the effect of student-centered teaching method on students academic outcomes in biology.
iii. To find out if the use of ICT enhances students’ learning in biology.
iv. To identify current challenges to the teaching method used in teaching biology in senior secondary school.
v. To provide plausible recommendations on how to improve the teaching methods used in teaching biology.