IMPACT OF STRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGY ON EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISATIONS

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ABSTRACT

The study is aimed at evaluating the Impact of Structure and Technology on Employee Behaviour in organisations, using a selected service oriented organisation and a manufacturing organisation namely: Diamond Bank Plc and Nigerian Breweries Plc in Enugu State.

The two major objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which structure and technology influence employee behaviour and to determine how the application of good structure and technology could improve employee behaviour.

The primary and secondary sources were used to obtain information for the study. The questionnaire was structured in five point Likert scale type format, in line with the objectives set out to achieve the study.

In calculating the sample size, the researcher applied the statistical formula for selecting from a finite population as formulated by Yamane (1964:280). The researcher chose to use the stratified sampling method so as to give a fair representation to the designated organisations and also by using the proportionality formula to allocate the sample size. The Chi-square (X2) statistical test method was used to test the hypotheses for the study.

Findings indicate that the extent to which structure and technology influences employee behaviour is high and that the application of good structure and technology would result to improved employee behaviour by designing structures which achieve a balance between cooperation and competition, which combine team behaviours and individual motivation.

Conclusively, organisations are set up for specific purposes, to achieve set goals and objectives. People join organisations because they believe that their personal goals could be met, while they strive to achieve the organisations objectives. Structure and technology provides the framework of an organisation and makes possible the application of the process of management.

Based on the findings, the study recommended that management of organisations should design their structure and technology to have significant effect on the management and functioning of the organisation in such a way as to help employees work together effectively by clarifying employee’s responsibilities and how their efforts should mesh through job descriptions, organisation charts and lines of authority.

                                              TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                                               ii

Certification                                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                                           iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                              v

Abstract                                                                                                               vi

Table of Contents                                                                                     vii

  1.        Chapter One: INTRODUCTION
  2. Background of Study                                                   9                   
  3. Statement of the Problem                                                                            10
  4. Objectives of the Study                                                                              11
  5.  Research Questions                                                                       12
  6. Research Hypotheses                                                                                 12
  7. Significance of the Study                                                                          13
  8. Scope of the Study                                                                          13
  9.  Limitations of the Study                                                                       13
  10. Definition of Terms                                                                                14
  11. Historical Background of Diamond Bank Plc                                         14
  12. Historical Background of Nigerian Bank Plc                                            16

 References                                                                                                                18

  •      Chapter Two: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
  •  The Concept of Organisation Structure                                           19
  •  Types of Organisational Structure                                         20
  • Impact of Structure on Employee Behaviour                                     23
  • Technology Generally Defined                                                                  24
  •  Types and Characteristics of Technology                                               26
  • Impact of Technology on Employee Behaviour                                      28
  • Structure and Technology in an Organisation                          30
  • Effects of a Deficient Organisation Structure and Technology          33

     References                                                                                             35

3          Chapter Three: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                              37

3.2       Sources of Data                                                                                              37

3.3       Population of the Study                                                         37

3.4       Determination of Sample Size                                                     38

3.5       Description of Instrument used for Data Collection                40

3.6       Data Analysis Techniques                                                                40

3.7       Validity of the Instrument                                                            41

3.8       Reliability of the Instrument                                                        42

            References                                                                                                      43

4.0       Chapter Four: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Introduction                                                                                    44

4.2       Data Presentation and Analysis                                                     44

4.3       Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                49

5          Chapter Five: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS  

5.1       Introduction                                                                               58

5.2       Summary of Findings                                                                         58

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                      58

5.4       Recommendations                                                                          59

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES

                                                 CHAPTER ONE

                                       INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

An organization is established to achieve set goals and objectives. For it to realise this, its work has to be divided among its members. Some structure and technology is necessary to make possible the effective performance of key activities and to support the efforts of staff members. Structure and technology provides the framework of an organization and its pattern of management. It is by means of structure and technology that the purpose and work of the organisation are carried out.

The structure of an organisation is usually depicted in the form of an organisation chart. This will show, at a given moment in time, how work is divided and the grouping together of activities, the levels of authority and formal organisational relationships. The organisational chart provides a pictorial representation of the overall shape and structural framework of an organisation. Some charts are very sketchy and give only a minimum amount of information. Other charts give varying amounts of additional detail such as an indication of the broad nature of duties and responsibilities of the various units. Organisation charts are useful in explaining the outline structure of an organisation. They may be used as a basis for the analysis and review of structure, for training and management succession, and for formulating changes.

The functions of structure and technology, the activities and defined relationships within it, exist independently of the members of the organisation who carry out the work. However, personalities are an important part of the working of the organisation. In practice, the actual operation of the organisation and success in meeting its objectives will depend upon the behaviour of people who work within the structure and who give shape and personality to the framework.

The human relations writers are critical of the emphasis on the formal organisation. The favour a structure in which there is increased participation from people at all levels of the organisation, greater freedom for the individuals, and more meaningful work organisation and relationships. The view of the human relations writers represents more of an attitude towards organisation than specific proposals, but it reminds us of the importance of the human element in the design of structure and technology. Managers need to consider how structural design and methods of work organisation influence the behaviour and performance of members of the organisation.

The quality of the relationship between line and functional managers lies at the heart of achieving both the compliance to rules and ability to work with the principles behind them. If the relationship is good, and trust and respect high, then both sides understand the importance of each other’s role. Line management knows they will always be pressing to drive harder on performance, but understand the functional roles are there to help create, and strengthen the boundaries they must cross.

The overall function and direction of a work organisation is determined by the nature of its corporate strategy. Strategy provides goals, objectives and guidelines for the structure & technology and operations of the organisation. Organisations play a major and increasingly important role in the lives of us all. The power and influence of a business organisation must also be tempered by decisions relating to its broader social obligations and ethical responsibilities.  

Also, the structure and technology of an organisation affects not only productivity and economic efficiency but also the morale and job satisfaction of its workforce, hence the impact it has on its employee behaviour. Getting the structure and the technology right is the first step in any organisational plan. Structure should be designed, therefore, so as to encourage the willing participation of members of the organisation and effective organisational performance.

It is important to bear in mind that there are many variables that influence the most appropriate organisation structure and system of management, including situational factors and the contingency approach. Changing patterns of work organisation, the demand for greater flexibility and the multi-skilling challenge, and managerial processes such as delegation and empowerment also have a major interrelationship with structure and influence decisions on structural design and technology.

While recognising that there is clearly no one right organisation, there is nevertheless, in the final analysis, an underlying need to establish a framework of order and system of command by which the work to be undertaken is accomplished successfully. This demands that attention be given to certain basic principles and considerations in the design of organisation structure and technology, or in reviewing the effectiveness of an existing structure and technology.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

IMPACT OF STRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGY ON EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANISATIONS