The main purpose of this study was to ascertain the extent to which motivational initiatives promote citizens’ participation in community development activities in Anambra and Imo States of Nigeria. Six research questions and six null hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study was 2, 357 respondents made up of members of registered Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in Anambra and Imo States. A sample of 853 respondents was drawn from the population using multi-stage proportionate sampling technique. Data collection instrument was self-structured questionnaire titled, ‘Questionnaire on Motivational Initiatives for Citizens’ Participation in Community Development Activities(QMICPCDA). The instrument was face validated by three experts, two in Community Development unit of Department of Adult Education & Extra-Mural Studies and one in Measurement and Evaluation Unit of Department of Science Education both from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. An overall reliability index of 0.91 was obtained using the Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The null hypotheses were tested using t-test at 0.05 level of significant. Weighted mean and Standard Deviation were used in analyzing the collected data. Copies of the instrument were administered to the respondents through direct delivery technique. Data collected from respondents were analyzed using frequency counts, mean ratings were used
for other six research questions. Result of findings indicated that to a high extent, decentralization of power in communities, good leadership, identification of needs, respect for people’s culture, adequate funding and need selection has assisted citizens’ participation in communities in Anambra and Imo States. The findings further revealed that significant differences were not found in decentralization of power, good leadership and need selection in the communities of Anambra and Imo States. However, significant difference was found in the mean ratings of respondents from the two states regarding the extent to which identification of needs, adequate funding and respect for peoples’ culture has assisted citizens’ participation in the communities in Anambra and Imo States. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made that government and community leaders should encourage decentralization of power that is, power should be transferred from higher to local level to empower communities to work together, define and resolve their problems.
Background of the Study
Motivation is a combination of goals towards which human behaviour is directed, the process through which those goals are pursued and achieved and social factors involved (Jones, Jennifer & Hill, 2000). An individual is motivated through certain motivational factors that directs and sustains behaviour. According to them motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviour of human beings (Jones, Jennifer & Hill, 2000). Hornby (2006:345) defined motivation as eagerness and willingness to do something without needing to be told or forced to do it”. Motivation is a critical component of participation, it is important in getting citizens’ to engage in development activities (Bernstein, 2011).
There are two types of motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic (Reeve and Jang, 2006). Extrinsic is determined by the individual’s outside surrounding and specific tasks. Intrinsic motivation can be found within the individual since the task can be viewed as valuable. Therefore, when applying the effect that motivation has on the development process, it is clear that people participate better based on the perceived value of the task, subject matter, personal goals, financial incentives and wide array of different factors. As a gardener must know or should have sought to know which soil is more suitable to the plant and when and how much water should be required by plant, so must a community leader know how a citizen participates, how the factors like motivation facilitates the development process (Margolis & McCabe, 2006),
Motivation is vital in any development, it is viewed by (Cole,2001) as a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behaviour in order to achieve personal goals. He further stated that motivational initiatives are conditions by which organizational and personal goals are harmonized. This implies that motivational initiatives are drives towards the successful.