MUNICIPALSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN KADUNA NORTH LOCALGOVERNMENTAREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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MUNICIPALSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN KADUNA NORTH LOCALGOVERNMENTAREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Generally wastes are substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provision of national law (Akos, 2009). Waste are materials that are not prime products produced for the markets for which their initial use has no further use in terms of purpose production, transformation or consumption but ready for disposal (Adedibu, 1983). Waste are generated during extraction, processing of materials into final products and other human activities which can later be recycled ,reused or reduced at the point of generation or elsewhere (Aniko, 2009).

Okecha,(2000) defined waste as matter discarded as worthless, defective or of no further value and is most often derived from places of human or animal habitation, or through a manufacturing process. It is an acknowledged undesirable by product of human settlements and economic, industrial and social development, which has traditionally been collected as domestic or industrial wastes for incineration or disposal in land, water or air (Babatunde, 2009).

Waste was an early problem of mankind and a growing one that is of major concern to every caring nation. Waste disposed on the ground turns to compost in order to improve soil fertility.Solid waste management(SWM)is now a major environmental issue that can be likened “to monster” staring the authorities on the face.Solid waste can be classified on the basis of their sources, environmental risks factors, utility and physical properties, it could be municipal waste or agricultural waste. Kaduna north is no exception as it also grapples with heap of waste waiting for evacuation in most streets,Okecha, 2000,Solid waste could be non-liquid or non-gaseous and consist of organic (biodegradables) and non- organic (non biodegradables) such as metals, plastics, bottles, and broken glasses.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are generally waste from household, businesses and institutions, demolition and industrial waste. Agricultural waste are always from the agriculture sector. It has been found out that in most Nigerian cities and villages, chickens, goats, sheep, pigs, and other non-pet domesticated animals are usually sighted in high populated and commercial areas.With rising urbanization and change in lifestyles and food, the amount of solid waste generated has been increasing rapidly and composition also changing. Industrialization, human activities and economic level of different sectors are relative to the type of waste generated.(Adeyemi, 2001).The composition of municipal solid waste may be broadly categorized into recyclables, inert waste, composite waste, domestic and hazardous waste and householdwaste produced from daily consumption.

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MUNICIPALSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN KADUNA NORTH LOCALGOVERNMENTAREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA