PARASITE OF POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS

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ABSTRACT

The current study focused on parasite of poultry and game birds in Nigeria. It also  documented information on knowledge of  parasites and local treatments used  through the use of questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to 17 farmers in tUyo Local Government Area. Results revealed that Ectoparasites commonly encountered were ticks and fleas, at prevalence rate of 47.06% each; and mites and lice at 17.65% each.

Endoparasites occurred at a rate of 29.1%. Majority (71%) of the farmers treated against endoparasites, using mainly piperazine citrate (35.3%). Others (82.4%) controlled ectoparasites using cabaryl (53%), cooking oil (11.6%), ectomin (11.6%), while 23.5% did not know the type of treatment they had given. Sixty five percent (65%) of the respondents used herbal medicine to control endoparasites

Control of these parasites is recommended and  good hygiene practice good hygienic practices were recommended for control of parasitic infections.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Poultry farming is the practice of raising domesticated birds such as chicken, turkey, ducks, quails and geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food (Anon, 2011). Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are birds of primary importance, while guinea fowl and squabs are chiefly of local interest. Poultry plays an important economic, nutritional and socio-cultural role in the livelihood or rural household in many developing countries including Nigeria. Poultry are birds that include fowl, turkey, duck, goose, ostrich guinea fowl, pigeon etc. which render not only economic services but contribute significantly to human food as a primary supplier of meat, egg, raw materials for industries (feathers, waste products), source of income and employment to people compare to other domestic animals (Omodele and Okere, 2014).

Profitable livestock and poultry production in Nigeria is majorly constrained by parasitism. Endo and ecto parasites are common among selected chickens; as they scavenge and forage for food they tend to pick up infective stages of the parasites. These parasites are a major cause of stress to birds where they compete for nutrients, some suck blood causing anaemia, interfere with feed consumption, while others cause anorexia or death. High parasite burden leads to severe parasitism. Parasitic diseases come first among other diseases that cause reduction in productivity of rural poultry. However, these diseases are often overlooked because clinical symptoms are rarely apparent (Adebisi, 2007).  These parasites constitute a major factor limiting productivity of the poultry industry by affecting the growth rate of the host resulting in malfunctioning of organs and eventually death (Soulsby, 1982). Hence, this study intends to assess parasite of poultry and game birds in Nigeria.

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

A lot of losses in poultry have been linked to diseases causing agents such as viruses, bacteria and parasites. It has been estimated that more than 750 million chicken, guinea fowls and duckling in Africa die each year as a result of various infections (Sonaiya 1990). Although somewhat in birds parasitic has been achieved by commercial production system mostly due to improved housing hygiene and management practices, the prevalence of infectious diseases is still very rampant (Pandry et at: 1992). Parasitism is a problem in selected chickens and the parasites are likely to contribute significantly to low productivity.

Nigeria has a comparatively well developed poultry industry for West African Nation. Improved poultry management practices are responsible for the reduction in incidence of parasitic infections. The enormous expansion in the commercial poultry production sector has been possible through improved management in terms of management procedures such as total separation between different age groups, introduction of the “all in – all out” system, efficient housing systems, routine vaccination programmes, proper feeding and avoidance of predators (Musa 2010). However, parasitic diseases continue to be of great importance in deep-litter and free-range commercial systems. In traditional systems throughout the world a number of parasites are widely distributed and contribute significantly to the low productivity. The most commonly mentioned parasites are Eimeria spp., Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum which are mainly due to the many studies carried out on these parasites.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OFTHE STUDY

The primary objective of this research is to assess parasite of poultry and game birds in Nigeria. Other objectives include;

  1. To identify the common parasites affecting poultry birds in Nigeria
  2. To establish parasite types and intensity among selected poultry farmers in Nigeria
  3. To examine the kinds of local treatments used by poultry farmers in treating such parasitic infections

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions to be addresses in this work include the following:

  1. What are the common parasites affecting poultry birds in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent is the  intensity of parasitic infections  among selected poultry farmers in Nigeria?
  3. What kinds of local treatments used by poultry farmers in treating such parasitic infections?

 

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

  1. The findings of the study will motivate Nigerian policy makers and Animal Health Professionals will benefit from the study as the studies will expose them to the cause of major epidermis seen each year resulting in death of many birds, and this knowledge will enable more precise disease control planning.
  2. The study will provide valuable data to the scientist for epidemiogical studies both logically throughout Nigeria through collaboration. The data will also assist them with a role informing animal health and disease control policy.
  3. The study will be significant in the training of farmers on improve livestock breeds for the gradual upgrading of local breeds.
  4. This study will help to increase productivity of poultry farms which in turn will create job opportunity to the community and reduce the cost of production. Also the more progressive or productive the poultry farm is, the more produce will be supplied to the market for distribution.
  5. The study will help the community dwellers and those practicing poultry on subsistence level by teaching them poultry management practices and approaches which can be used to achieve improved performance in their business.

 

1.6     DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is delimited to prevalence of parasite of poultry and game birds with particular focus on Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

PARASITE OF POULTRY AND GAME BIRDS

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