STORAGE STABILITY OF FRIED SNACK PRODUCE FROM WHEAT, HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR AND TIGER NUT PROMACE FLOUR

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the third most important source of energy after rice, for human and livestock in the world (FAO, 2006). It is grown for its edible roots, which serves as a food security and income-generating crop for millions of people in the developing countries (Sanni, Ayinde, 2002, Amani Kamenan, Rolland-Sabaté, Colonna. (2005). Nutritionally, the root is starchy, containing about 60-70% moisture and 32-35% total carbohydrate of which 80% is starch with greater proportion as amylopectin (Rawel and Kroll 2003). It has varying amounts of crude fat (0.1-0.3 %), protein (1-3%) and fibre (1.5%) depending on the age and variety (Charles, Sriroth, Huang (2005). Conventional varieties of cassava are deficient in micronutrients such as vitamin A, iron, and zinc thus limiting their use as a single food considering the importance of these micronutrients to humans. This is the major cause of hidden hunger in most parts with over 250 million children under the age of five suffering from vitamin A deficiency (Tanumihardjo. 2008, Gegios, Amthor, Maziya-Dixon, Egesi, Mallowa, Nungo, Gichuki, Mbanaso and Manary. 2010). Yellow Cassava is bio-fortified with micronutrients which could be a sustainable approach to control micronutrient malnutrition and this could reach the public especially in the tropics through some of the key cassava-based food products. Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient for the normal functioning of visual system, growth and maintenance of epithelial cellular integrity. In developing countries where the supply of animal protein is inadequate to meet the rapid population growth, considerable interests have been shown in supplementing wheat flour with high-protein, high- lysine material (especially legume and oilseed flours, protein concentrates, and isolates) to increase the protein content and improve the essential amino acid balance of flour-based baked products (Young J. 2001). These oilseeds and legume can however be utilized in other crops such as cassava to improve its nutrient. In Nigeria, there is a wide varieties of oil crops in various parts of the country ranging from largely known and highly utilized ones like soya bean, palm kernel and groundnut, to underutilized ones like walnut, locust bean, African oil bean and sesame seed. Sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn) is a major oil crop in the world. Globally, the total crop area under sesame production is about 6 million hectares. Nigeria is the fifth largest producer of sesame seed in the world with an estimated production of 120,000 metric tonnes annually (10). Black sesame seeds contain better quality of oil and are also suited for medicinal purposes to cure several human diseases (Leung, A). It is exceptionally richer in iron, magnesium, manganese, calcium and Vitamins B1 and B2 (Makinde FM, Akinoso R. 2013). Moreover, evidence also points to the fact that black sesame flour contain significantly lower anti-nutrient (majorly phytate and oxalate). Addition of black sesame seeds flour to root and tuber based products could be a good option to provide better overall essential amino acid balance, helping to overcome the world protein calorie malnutrition problem. Processes applied to sesame seeds such as roasting, fermentation and germination has been reported to further improve the nutrient quality and reduce the anti-nutrient contents of sesame seeds. Composite flour can be defined as a mixture of flours, starches and other ingredients intended to replace wheat flour totally or partially in bakery and pastry products (Milligan, Amlie, Reyes, Garcia, Meyer (1981), Shittu, Raji, Sanni, (2007). The use of composite flours had a few advantages for developing countries such as saving of hard currency, promotion of high-yielding native plant species, a better supply of protein for human nutrition, better overall use of domestic agriculture production and reduction of importation of wheat flour (Bugusu, Campanella, Hamaker,  (2001), Hasmadi, Siti Faridah, Salwa, Matanjun, Abdul Hamid, Rameli (2014). Thus, several developing countries have encouraged the initiation of programmes to evaluate the feasibility of alternative locally available flours as a substitute for wheat flour (Abdelghafor, Mustafa, Ibrahim and Krishnan (2011). Eating snacks during lunch periods has become a way of life for school children and the busy working class people in most urban cities in developing nations like Nigeria. Providing nutritious and healthy snacks remains a major challenge for the food industry to tackle, including the issue of sugar and carbohydrate contents in snack which predisposes obesity (Emmanuel-Ikpeme C, Eneji C. Igile G. 2012). Extrusion cooking is a food process in which ingredients are subjected to mixing, heating and shearing and are forced to flow through a die that forms and expands the ingredients. Effects of extrusion cooking on nutritional quality include changes in proteins and amino acid profile, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, vitamins, mineral content, and some nonnutrient healthful components of food, which may be beneficial (Singh S, Gamlath S, Wakeling L. 2007). The production of composite flours using various crops for confectionary and bakery goods has been carried out by many researchers. However, very little information is available on the composite flour of Yellow cassava and sesame seed flour for extruded snacks production. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the qualities of extruded snacks from Yellow Cassava flour substituted with processed Sesame seeds flour.

1.2     Statement of the problem

The increasing importance of snack foods such as cookies in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This probably is as a result of the prohibitive cost of imported wheat which leads to high cost of baked products. Also wheat has given issues in recent years about gluten related allergies and therefore not suitable for those who have weight problem, celiac disease or diabetes. Cookies are produced from the flour of wheat which is a cereal. Wheat is deficient in lysine. Cookies studies had looked into the non-wheat flours in other to reduce cost of bakery products. However, in many countries, Cyperus esculentus is considered a weed. Tiger-nut is not widely used in agriculture and therefore has been poorly investigated. Thus the commercial potentials of tiger-nut which has not been exploited sparked a keen interest in its flour selection for production of cookies. Therefore the objective of this work is to evaluate the proximate, mineral and sensory properties of cookies made from tiger-nut flour enriched with tiger-nut milk

1.3     Objective of the study

To examine the effect Storage stability of fried snack produce from wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour

To examine the quality of Storage stability of fried snack produce from wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour

1.4     Research Question

What is the effect of Storage stability of fried snack produce from wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour?

What is the quality of Storage stability of fried snack produce from wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

There is no significant effect of Storage stability of fried snack produce from wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour

There is no significant effect of quality of Storage stability of fried snack produce from wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour

1.6     Significance of the study

There is little information on the utilization of African yam bean seed, a nutrient dense but neglected underutilized species (NUS) of legume) to enrich cassava snacks. The development of these cassava-based snacks through value-added processes will establish appropriate and optimum conditions for improving the product quality. It will offer wider utilisation to AYB, leading to job creation both at farm and industrial level. Also, the crude, non standardised processing operations associated with this Nigerian snack will be upgraded as a way of improving its nutritional, sensory and storage properties. This research work is in line with national policies of food security and upgrading traditional food processing techniques, thus adding value to Nigerian snacks.

1.7     Scope of the study

The study was delimited to Storage stability of wheat, high quality cassava flour and tiger nut promace flour

1.8     Limitation of the study

In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the respondents through questionnaire also constituted a constraint in the study.

STORAGE STABILITY OF FRIED SNACK PRODUCE FROM WHEAT, HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR AND TIGER NUT PROMACE FLOUR

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