SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA: CASE OF AKWA IBOM STATE

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ABSTRACT
This study was to examine the socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, case study of Akwa Ibom State. A structured questionnaire was administered on 150 respondents which were members of public, Health workers and HIV/AIDS patients from the three (3) senatorial districts of the State. The findings reveal that poverty, labour migration, inadequate information on the issues of HIV/AIDS, ignorance on the issues of HIV/AIDS, poor health management systems and unfaithfulness of sexual partners are the causes of spread of HIV/AIDS in Akwa Ibom State and that HIV/AIDS has negative effect on labour productivity and supply, household income and government revenue and that government play an important role in controlling and preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS in Akwa Ibom State. The study recommended that the state government should put HIV/AIDS at the centre of the state development and poverty reduction strategies and create opportunities for youth empowerment and employment and that measures for preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS should be adopted by government for every citizen to know their HIV/AIDS status in order to protect themselves against the spread. The study concluded that to prevent and control the spread of HIV/AIDS in Akwa Ibom State, government and private sector must be at the centre of all development and poverty reduction programmes. The government must, therefore, show commitment by mobilizing and providing the financial and human resources to combat HIV/AIDS. Individual on their own needs to respond positively and reasonably by being HIV/AIDS conscious.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 3
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – 4
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – – 4
1.6 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.7 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.8 Organisation of the Study – – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Theoretical Literature – – – – – – 8
2.1 The State of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria – – – – – 7
2.2 Factors Responsible for the Spread of HIV/AIDS
in Nigeria- – – – – – – – – 9
2.3 Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS- – – – – – 14
2.4 Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS – – – – 18
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – — — — — – – 21
3.2 Study Area – – – – – – – – 22
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique- – – – – – 22
3.4 Sources of Data – – – – – – – 23
3.5 Data Collection Technique – – – – – – 23
3.6 Questionnaire Administration – – – – – 24
3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 24

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS
AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – 27
4.2.1 Analysis of Personal Demographic Data – – – – 27
4.2.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Respondents – – – 27
4.2.3 Analysis of the Impact Assessment of HIV/AIDS on – – 34
Households in Akwa Ibom State

4.3 Testing of Hypothesis – – – – – – – 36
4.3.1 Hypothesis 1 – – – – – – – – 37

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 38
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 39
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 39
Reference – – – – – – – – 41
Appendix 1 – Questionnaire – – – – – – – 44

LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Distribution and Collection of Questionnaires – 27
Table 4.2 Sex Distribution of Respondent – – – 28
Table 4.3 Age Distribution of Respondents- – – – 28
Table 4.4 Marital Status of Respondents- – – – 29
Table 4.5 Educational Qualification of Respondents- – – 30
Table 4.6 Occupation of Respondents- – – – – 31
Table 4.7 Analysis of Causes of Spread of HIV/AIDS in- – 32
Akwa Ibom State

Table 4.8 Effect of HIV/AIDS in Akwa Ibom State – – 33
Table 4.9 Effect of HIV/AIDS on Households in Akwa Ibom State – – – – – – 35

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
The incursion of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome on the global scene has been a major source of concern world-wide. Since the mid 1980s, HIV/AIDS has spread to almost every country in the world with sub-Saharan Arica being the worst-hit region where leading cause of death is manifested WHO (2008). Its prevalence has imposed a lot of problems in the society, which cannot be over looked.
HIV is Human Immune Deficiency Virus, the virus that causes AIDS. When a person is infected with this Virus, his or her body fluids such as blood, semen and vaginal secretions will contain HIV and antibodies against the virus. The virus stays in the body and slowly destroys the body’s defense mechanisms. The duration of time it takes for a person infected to fall ill varies and takes between several months to seven years. It follows therefore that an infected person can spread the virus unknowingly (Akisolu, 2004). When the virus has destroyed the body immune system, the symptom of AIDS begins to manifest.

At this stage of full-blown AIDS, the body’s natural defence system is weakened and the infected person becomes vulnerable to all kinds of infection such as persistent cough, skin infections and unexplained weight loss (Shaffer, 1994).
It is deadly and was first discovered in the United States of America (USA) in 1981. Nigeria has the third largest number of people living with HIV (Ugwu, 2009). The first cases of AIDS were reported in Nigeria in March 1986 by health authorities since then, the number of reported cases has been increasing steadily over the years. The epidemic is complex and varies widely by region. The infection has no age limit and is not restricted to any age group. The disease infects children, youth, adults and the aged alike. Youth and young adults are particularly vulnerable to HIV, with young women at higher risk than men.
The socio-economic effects of this disease has led to the rising morbidity and mortality rate. The rise in morbidity which has led to reduction in labour productivity; increase in health care spending and reduction in savings. On the other hand, the gradual rise in mortality rate caused by AIDS will slowdown the population growth rate; which will result in a smaller population at a future date. Also, the size of the working-age population will directly reduce potential output. These and other related problems form the rationale for this study.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
HIV/AIDS is one of the greatest health challenges confronting humanity at present. Despite the concerted efforts by governments and private organizations to control the epidemic, a lot of people are still victims of this killer disease.
In Nigeria, it is estimated that 3.6 percent of the population are living with HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy has declined significantly partly due to the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In 1991, the average life expectancy was 54 years for women and 53 years for men. In 2009, these figures had fallen to 48 for women and 46 for men (Ugwu, 2013).
This epidemic is increasing at alarming rate due to the fact that some people do not really believe the existence of HIV/AIDS, in order to refrain from risky behaviour that fuel the spread of HIV/AIDS. According to Standing and Kisekka (1989), economic variables such as poverty, income inequality, gender inequality and socio-cultural behaviour of the people and indifferent attitude toward HIV/AIDS are some penetrating factors responsible for the spread of HIV/AIDS.
It is against this background that this study will examine the question of what are the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS. It will also address the question of what are the effective measures to be adopted in controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria as whole and Akwa Ibom State i(AKS) in particular.

1.3 Objective of Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The study specifically seeks to:
Identify the factors responsible for the spread of HIV/AIDS
epidemic in Akwa Ibom State;
Examine the effects of HIV/AIDS on some variable such as
household income, labour supply and productivity;
Examine the fiscal implication of HIV/AIDS for Akwa Ibom
State government.
Assess the government’s effort toward eradicating HIV/AIDS
in Akwa Ibom State.

1.4 Research Questions
The questions that are relevant to the objectives of the research study are:
What are the factors responsible for the spread of HIV/AIDS
in Akwa Ibom State?
What are the effects of HIV/AIDS on household income,
labour supply and productivity?
In what ways does HIV/AIDS affect fiscal responsibility and
demands of the government.
How effective are the government’s effort towards
eradicating HIV/AIDS?

SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA: CASE OF AKWA IBOM STATE