INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.

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INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Dairy products are various products derived from cow’s milk or that of other female mammals such as goat, sheep, yaks, horses, camel. Dairy products include yoghurt, nono (fermented cow’s milk, madara (unfermented cow’s milk, cheese, whey, condensed and evaporated milk.) (cultureforhealth, 2015).

Yoghurt, nono, Madara has become so highly valued in humans diet because of their nutritional values and their culinary possibilities (George and pamplon, 2006) Yoghurt is made by controlled thermoduric fermentation of pasteurized non-fat or low fat milk carried out around 45% (Prescott et al., 2005) . It is probably the most popular fermented milk in Nigeria. Yoghurt is a foods produced by bacterial fermentation of milk and these bacteria are known as “yoghurt cultures. Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid which acts on milk and protein to give yoghurt its texture and characteristic tang. Also yoghurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture) usually Streptococcus thermopiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus into milk, after inoculation, the milk is incubated at 40 to 46% (105 to 115%) until fermentation, the milk is coagulated by bacteria to produce lactic acid (serre et al., 2009)

Nono is an opaque white to milky coloured, liquid food drink gotten from fermented raw cow milk made locally (Godwin and Emmanuel2013). It is widely consumed in many African countries including Nigeria. Nono is of two types such as kindirimo and sallah though the nono is mostly termed kindirimo. Mostly the Fulani’s produce milk locally in Nigeria and the excess of the milk is processed into these products for preservation and use (Akinyele, et al., 1999). Also kindirimo is produced locally by pasteurized cow milk which are prepared by heating to boiling and then allowed to cool at 37c and the milk butter from the previous day is added to it at the rate of 0.5-1% of the amount of milk to be processed and then left overnight to become sour until it coagulate (Odunfa, et al., 1988)

Madara is the unfermented raw milk collected from cow’s   under while nono is product form raw Milk collected from cow’s udder into a container called calabash and allowed to ferment naturally for 24hours. Nono is also more popular in term of public consumption than madara, this is because madara is rarely sold to public for direct consumption as compared to nono. Madara is produced in homes especially in villages where producers are ignorant of shelf-life and safety standards of the products nono is sold to both rural and urban dwellers as food (Uzeh, et al. 2006).

 

 

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INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN DAIRY PRODUCTS.

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