TEACHERS OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNDERSTANDING OF GENETIC COUNSELLING AS A PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

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TEACHERS OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNDERSTANDING OF GENETIC COUNSELLING AS A PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to investigate teachers of special needs education understanding of genetic counselling as preventive measures for intellectual disabilities in Akwa Ibom State. In order to achieve the purpose of this study three objectives   (i) Determine the level of understanding of teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State. (ii) Determine the level of understanding of male and female teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State? (iii) Determine the level of understanding of married and unmarried teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State?

Research questions (i) What is the level of understanding of teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State? (ii) What is the level of understanding of male and female teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State?        (iii) What is the level of understanding of married and unmarried teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State? Hypothesis (i) The level of understanding of teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability will not be statistically significant. (ii) There is no significant difference in the level of understanding of male and female teachers in special needs education on genetic counselling as preventive measure for intellectual disability. (iii) There is no significant difference in the level of understanding of married and unmarried teachers in special needs education in genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population consisted of 30 teachers from each of the Special schools. 30 teachers purposively used as sample for the study.  The instrument used was teachers of special needs education understanding of genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability questionnaire” (TSNEUGCMFIDQ) which was validated and had a reliability coefficient of 0.73 Mean and standard deviation was used for answering the research questions and independent t-test was used to test the hypothesis at 0.5. The result and the major findings showed that there is a significant understanding of the genetic counselling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability among teachers of special education.  It was recommended that the health workers should create more awareness in schools on  genetic counselling to help the students avoid future consequences. Seminars  and  workshops  should  be  organized, awareness  through pamphlets  and  leaflets  to  intensify  effort  in  assisting  the students, teachers and parent  know the dangers of avoiding genetic counselling.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Pages

Title page – – – – – – – – i

Declaration – – – – – – – – ii

Certification – – – – – – – – iii

Dedication – – – – – – – – iv

Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – v

Abstract – – – – – – – – vi

Table of content – – – – – – – – vii-ix

List of Tables – – – – – – – – x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – 1

1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – 8

1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – 9

1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 10

1,5 Research Question – – – – – – 11

1.6 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – 11

1.7 Scope the Study – – – – – – 12

1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

21. Theoretical Frameworks – – – – – – 13

2.1.1 Rational Emotive Theory – – – – – – 13

2.1.2 Eclectic Theory – – – – – – 15

2.1.3 Theory  of Reason Action “TRN” – – – – – 18

2.2 Conceptual framework – – – – – – 22

2.2.1 Concept of Counselling – – – – – – 22

2.2.2 Concept of genetic counseling – – – – – 24

2.2.3 Concept of intellectual disability – – – – – 40

2.2.4 Classification of Intellectual disability – – – – 41

2.2.5 Prevalence of Intellectual disability – – – – – 43

2.2.6 Intellectual Disability – Diagnostic Aspect – – – – 44

2.2.7 Characteristics of Intellectual Disable persons – – – 46

2.2.8 Origin and causes of Intellectual Disability – – – – 50

2.2.9 Problems Associated with Intellectual Disability – – – 56

2.2.10 Causes of Intellectual Disability – – – – – 67

2.2.11 Genetic Factors that causes Intellectual Disability – – – 67

2.2.12 Genetic Counselling for Intellectual Disabilities – – – 68

2.3 Empirical Studies – – – – – – – 70

2.3.1 Genetic Counselling on the prevention of disability – – – 71

2.3.2 Genetic counseling among male and female teachers in

Preventing intellectual disability – – – 72

2.3.4 Genetic counseling among married and unmarried teachers in

Preventing intellectual disability – – – – – 75

2.4 Summary of the review of literature – – – – – 75

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 78

3.2 Area of the Study – – – – – – – 78

3.3 population of the Study – – – – – – 79

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques – – – – 79

3.5 Instrumentation – – – – – – – 79

3.6 Validity of Instrument – – – – – – 80

3.7 Reliability of the Instruments – – – – – – 80

3.8 Administration of the instrument – – – – – 80

3.9 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 80

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Answering Research Questions – – – – – 82

4.1.1 Research Question one – – – – – – 82

4.1.2 Research Questions two – – – – – – 84

4.1.3 Research Questions three – – – – – – 85

4.1.4 Hypothesis One – – – – – – – 86

4.1.5 Hypothesis Two – – – – – – – 87

4.1.6 Hypothesis Three – – – – – – – 87

4.2 Discussion – – – – – – – – 88

4.2.1 Level of the understanding of teachers in special education on genetic

Counseling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability – 88

4.2.2 The level of understanding of male and female teachers in special

Needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure for

Intellectual disability – – – – – – – 89

4.2.3 The level of understanding of married and single teachers in

Special needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive

Measure for intellectual disability – – – – 90

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 91

5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 92

5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – 93

5.4 Educational Implications of Finding – – – – – 93

5.5 Recommendation – – – – – – – 75

5.5 Suggestions for further research – – – – – 75

References – – – – – – – – – 95-100

LIST OF TABLE

                   Pages

Table 1: Mean and standard deviation on the level of understanding of teachers in special   needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure

for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State ………………………………… 82

Table 2: Mean and standard deviation on the level of understanding of male and female   

teachers in special needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure   for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State  ………………………………. 84

Table 3: Mean and standard deviation of differences in the level of understanding of married

and unmarried teachers in special needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State.  ……………. 85

Table 4: t-test analysis of significant level of the understanding of teachers in special needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State.     ……………………………………………………………. 86

Table 5: t-test analysis of significant difference in the level of understanding of male and female teachers in special needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State. ……………………. 87

Table 6: t-test analysis of significant difference in the level of understanding of married and

single teachers in special needs education on genetic counseling as a preventive measure for intellectual disability in Akwa Ibom State.   ……………………. 88

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is critical in addressing the growing burden of public health problems in developing nations. The goal of sustainable developmental. Goals place emphasis on the functionality of education as a requisite to achieving health lives and wellbeing across the life-course (Maurice, 2015). Establishing available link between education and health is essential to setting policy priorities. Education empowers to make informed decision as well as dictating the behaviour of the individual attitudes towards a specific action.

Education started long before the Europeans arrived, education had been part of Nigerians. The children were taught about their culture, social activities, survival skills and work. Most of these education processes were impacted into the children informally. In these societies, there are formal teaching and instructions that governed the rites of passage from youth into adulthood. The youth is expected to have attained the necessary social and survival skill as well as having a grounded knowledge in the culture. These are the foundation of education in Nigeria, and upon them were the western education implemented upon.

TEACHERS OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNDERSTANDING OF GENETIC COUNSELLING AS A PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE

TEACHERS OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNDERSTANDING OF GENETIC COUNSELLING AS A PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN AKWA IBOM STATE