TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

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TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the most challenging problems encountered in Nigeria is the improper disposal of industrial effluents into water bodies. These effluents from industries have a great deal of influence have a great deal of influence on the pollution of the water body, these effluents can alter the physical, chemical and the nature of the receiving water body (Sangodoyin, 1995).

Water bodies which are major receptacles of treated and untreated or partially treated industrial wastes have become highly polluted. The resultant effects on this on public health and the environment are usually great in magnitude (Osibanjo, et al., 2011). Textile industries form part of these prominent industries with attendant‟s indiscriminate discharge of effluent into the surrounding water bodies. They constitute severe environmental problems because the effluent are made up of complex composition such as chemical reagents, which are very diverse in chemical composition ranging from inorganic compounds to polymers and organic products such as dyes plasticizers, detergents (Zagal and Mazmanci, 2010).

They form one of the main sources with severe pollution problems world wide and its dye-containing wastewaters (i.e. 10,000 different textile dyes with an estimated annual production of 7.105 metric tones are commercially available worldwide; 30% of these dyes are used in excess of 1,000 tones per annum, and 90% of the textile products are used at the level of 100 tones per annum or less) (Robinson et. al.2001 Solomon et. al. 2009 Baban et al.2010).The discharge of dye-containing effluents into the water environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many of dyes released and their breakdown products are toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic to life forms mainly because of carcinogens, such as benzidine, naphthalene and other aromatic compounds. Without adequate treatment these dyes can remain in the environment for a long period of time affecting terrestrial and aquatic environments. The physico chemical parameters of water are thus affected such as temperature, pH, hardness, dissolved oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand (Auta, 2001).Water pollution is the resultant effect of these textile discharges and these pollutants build up in the foodchain. They accumulate in the organism and persist in the environment due to their stability or poor biodegradability (Zagal and Mazmanci, 2010).

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TOXICITY OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT ON OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS