This study focuses essentially on investigating the extent of institutional cooperation among Zoomlion (waste management agency), the local government and other relevant stakeholders in addressing the sanitation crisis in the La community of LaDMA in Accra Ghana through the use of communication. The study employs the mixed-method research. Secondary data is obtained from journal articles, academic books and newspapers whiles primary data was collected through questionnaires and unstructured interviews. Major findings from the study reveal that Zoomlion cooperates with the LaDMA and other relevant stakeholders in the La community in utilising communication tools such as social media, television, radio, Zoomlion vans with sirens as strategic methods in addressing the sanitation crisis in the area. These strategies have greatly improved on the waste management situation in the La community as they result in increase in awareness creation, lobbying for effective policies and legislation against poor sanitation conditions, as well as, assisting in capacity building for addressing sanitation crisis in the area. However, there are a number of challenges which confront the various institutions and stakeholders in cooperation to address the sanitation challenges in the La community of LaDMA. These include, financial constraints, expertise personnel constraints, negative sanitation practices and behaviour, among others. The study therefore concludes that Zoomlion as a private waste management agency plays a significant role in cooperation with the Government (precisely LaDMA) and other relevant stakeholders in addressing the dire sanitation crisis in the La community through the use of effective communication tools and strategies. It is therefore recommended that LaDMA should continue to collaborate and cooperate effectively with Zoomlion and all major stakeholders in the La community, to be able to effectively tackle or totally eradicate filth from Ghana, with much emphasis on the La community of LaDMA.



This Chapter serves as a precursor to the entire study. It contains the background to the study, problem statement, objectives and research questions of the study, significance of study, scope of the study and finally, the organization of the study.

            Background to Study

Addressing global sanitation crisis has been of major concern to international organizations (such as the UN, the WHO, World Bank, among others), states, policy makers, environmentalists, NGOs and scholars in recent times. This is because poor sanitation coupled with inaccessibility to safe drinking water has been the major cause of the high infant mortalities across the globe, particularly in developing countries; with Ghana and particular the La community inclusive (Abdullah, 2011). Sanitation can be defined as the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage. The word „sanitation‟ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal (WHO/UNICEF, 2017).

The World Health Organization states that sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces (WHO, 2017). However, the 2017 WHO Report estimates that about 2.1 billion people lack safe drinking water at home, and about

2.3 billion as many lacks safe or improved sanitation (WHO, 2017), particularly in developing countries including Ghana. About 600 million people used a limited sanitation service; that is, improved facilities shared with other households whilst about 892 million people worldwide still practiced open defecation, particularly in Sub-Saharan African countries including Ghana (WHO, 2017).