AIRPORT ADMINISTRATION AND THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Transportation security became a national issue since 1931. According to the FAA (1986), the first aviation hijacking took place in Arequipa, Peru on February 21, 1931.The introduction of jet airliners and a series of mid-air collisions in 1956 prompted the passage of the FAA Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (USDS, 2011). In September of 1961, Congress amended the FAA Act of1958, in which Air Piracy (hijacking), interference with flight crews, and unauthorized possession of weapons aboard an aircraft became criminal acts (USDS, 2011).Subsequently, other acts of hijacking occurred which spurred additional screening measures, including vetting (clearing) flight crewmembers, searches of aircraft and cabins for international flights, additional screening for international flights, and secondary screening of passengers at the gate area (USDS, 2011).
Although new policies by the FAA continued to be adopted, terrorism by means of aircraft was on the rise. On December 21, 1988, Pan America Flight 103 in route to New York crashed in Lockerbie, Scotland (USDS, 2011). According to the USDS (2011),a total of 270 individuals were killed, including the 259 passengers onboard the aircraft and 11 on the ground. As a result of the Pan Am 103 bombing, new security measures required x-raying or hand searching of all checked baggage and the matching of passengers with their baggage on international flights; no access to the contents of bags following x-ray or hand search; and random selection of passengers for enhanced scrutiny (USDS, 2011).In December 1994, Ramzi Yousef carried out a test run on Philippines Airlines(PAL) Flight #434 to carry improvised explosive (IED) components through air port security checkpoints (USDS, 2011). He exited the aircraft at the intermediate stop.
The IED detonated on the second leg of the flight and killed one passenger (USDS, 2011).Yousef was eventually captured. He was in the process of manufacturing explosives forth final phase of the Bojinka Plot. According to the USDS (2011) his intent was to bomb US aircraft over the Pacific Ocean. As a result of this plot, new protocols called forthe physical search of all hand carried baggage and temporarily prohibited all liquids in carry-on baggage (USDS, 2011).
After the attacks on September 11, 2001, it was clear that there was urgency to protect the airplane, airport terminals and associated facilities such as car parks from terrorist attacks.
Passengers and baggage are not the only sources of threats to commercial aviation security. Threats can also come from the many processes that support an airport and the passengers and aircraft it serves: catering, maintenance, cleaning, ticketing, baggage handling, air traffic control, retail, food services, parking, car rental and others. These are areas where the general public has unrestricted access to before passengers undertake security screening and pass into secured areas prior to aircraft boarding. Aviation security rely extensively on cost and risk reduction data for LAX compiled by RAND in 2004 (Stevens et al., 2004), which considered bombings or shooting attacks at the airport curbside or in other pre-screening areas of passenger terminal buildings. It is important to note that this assumes terrorists only desire to attack large airports. However, there are thousands of smaller passenger airports, enhanced security measures at large airports have been done to a lesser degree at the smaller ones.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
The advances in terrorism air transport sector of the country have rapidly crippled the social and economic conditions of country. The nation building which is one aspect of this transformation has made a dramatic impact on our society, particularly in the field of education. This has significantly discouraged…
Regrettably, there has been total lack of use of opportunities by health, education and agricultural sector in Uyo .local government area in Nigeria who are expected to maximally benefit and utilize the resources from the NGO as one of their major sources of contribution to humanities. Various reasons have been advanced for this seemingly low reflection of NGO and nation building. While some are of the opinion that agricultural sector could be influenced by NGO activities, NGO plays a vital roles in educational sector, peace keeping and medical sector. It is against this background that this research work is conducted to find out the role of non Governmental Organization in nation building in Nigeria with Uyo Local Government of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The specific objectives are as follows:
- To examine the role of Allied agencies in fighting terrorism in Nigerian airport
- To examine the effect of modern infrastructural facilities at the airport and the fight against terrorism in Nigeria
- To examine the factors militating against effective airport administration in Nigeria.
The following hypotheses will be tested:
- There is no significant influence of allied agencies in fighting terrorism in Nigerian airport.
- There is no significant influence of modern infrastructural facilities at the airport and the fight against terrorism in Nigeria.
- There is no significant influence of factors militating against effective airport administration in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Question
The following hypotheses will be tested:
- What is the role of Allied agencies in fighting terrorism in Nigerian airport?
- What is the effect of modern infrastructural facilities at the airport and the fight against terrorism in Nigeria?
- What are the factors militating against effective airport administration in Nigeria?
1.6 Significance of the Study
This work will be of benefit to tertiary institution students, Ministry of Transport, federal government, airport management, and allied agencies attached to airport, NGOs, travelers, investors. This study is also expected to be of immense help to the Government, Policy makers and Implementers. It will also be of help to improve the academic performance of the students. The result of this study is expected to provide data for planning, as well as provide additional stock data for other researchers, who might find it relevant and useful in their enquiries.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to airport administration and fight against terrorism using Akwa Ibom State International Airport as a study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
It is inevitable that a survey research of this nature must have some constraints which impact on this study. The study was limited strictly to Akwa Ibom State International Airport. Insufficiency in research funding reared its head to perhaps limit the researcher’s efforts and interest during typing, photocopying and binding processes.
The materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation and even the decision to use questionnaire in data collection constituted some limitation of the study, that is, how to get the true and required information from the students.
Finally, there was the problem of convincing the students’ on the primary objectives of the questionnaire and to give the true and required information. But for the quick intervention of the class teacher of the school who took time to clear the air and convince his students’, helped me to accomplish my mission.