ANTIMALARIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND DRUG RESISTANCE CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF PLASMODIUM SPECIES ISOLATES FROM PATIENTS IN SABON-WUSE, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA, A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON MICROBIOLOGY

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ANTIMALARIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND DRUG RESISTANCE CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF PLASMODIUM SPECIES ISOLATES FROM PATIENTS IN SABON-WUSE, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA, A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON MICROBIOLOGY

 

ABSTRACT

About half of Nigerian population experience at least one episode of malaria per year, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and loss of economic value. Retrospective study of the profile of malarial patients and the antimalarial drugs prescribed at Umaru Musa Yaradua memorial Hospital, Sabon-Wuse, Niger State, Nigeria were undertaken. The Plasmodium species among the malarial patients were also studied. The susceptibility of the predominant species to the prescribed antimalarial drugs was investigated. PCR analysis of the DNA of the resistant Plasmodiuum species isolates against the test antimalarials were studied using Qiagen DNeasy blood and tissue kit method. The retrospective study showed that Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) was the predominantly prescribed drugs while the month of May and October had the highest incidence of malarial infection in the years studied. Plasmodium falciparum (85.7%) was the predominant malaria parasite isolated from malaria patients in Sabon-Wuse, Niger State, Nigeria. Plasmodium malariae accounts for only 14.5% of the malaria parasite observed in the area. Only 5% of the P. falciparum parasites were sensitive in vitro to Chloroquine. PCR analysis of the DNA indicated the presence of Pfcrt-Ra Gene in the study area, which further confirms resistance to Chloroquine. Plasmodium falciparum isolates were observed to be sensitive in vitro to Artesunate-Amodiaquine drug in the study area. The investigation also shows that all the samples analysed had multi antimalarial drug resistant gene Pfcrt/FB (76T). A high percentage (87.5%) of the samples analysed displayed the multidrug resistant gene Pfcrt/FB (76K) at 76 bp. The result of the PCR analysis of the DNA corroborates the observed in vitrosusceptibility studies. Thus, there is the need for periodic antimalarial surveillance in order to curb emergence of multi antimalarial drug resistance as observed in Sabon-Wuse.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background

Malaria is a disease caused by the parasite called Plasmodium species that is transmitted from human-to-human by the female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease. If malaria is diagnosed and treated early, the duration of the infection can be considerably shortened, which in turn reduces the risk of complications and death.

 

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ANTIMALARIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY AND DRUG RESISTANCE CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF PLASMODIUM SPECIES ISOLATES FROM PATIENTS IN SABON-WUSE, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA, A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON MICROBIOLOGY

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