Education is the threshold of transforming a society from one level of development to another. Towards this drive government at all levels realizing the benefits accruable to education, had initiated one programme or the other to eliminate the high level of illiteracy, over dependence and other problems affecting the national unity, consciousness and development of the nation Salman, Olawoye and Yahaya, (2011). Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE), Education for All (EFA) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are typical examples of educational policies initiated or being signatory to by the Nigerian government in the 20th century (Lawal, 2007). This was to place the country favourably among the 20th largest economies in the world by 2020, consolidate her leadership roles in Africa as well as to enlist the nation as significant player in the global economic and political arena. Obong, (2006).

To all concerned, the needs and challenges of any society are best accomplished through education whose engine room are the teachers. According to the National Policy on Education (2004), there is no educational system that can rise above the quality of its teacher.

Teachers are highly essential for the successful operation of the educational system and constitute an important tool for educational development, and without teachers educational facilities cannot be expanded. Undoubtedly the success and quality of any educational system depends on the quality and quantity of teachers’ input into the system. The teacher therefore interpret the aims and goals of education and educate the learners in accordance with that. No wonder, Hammond (2000) was of the opinion, that states interest in improving pupils’ academic performance should look at the preparation and qualification of the teachers they recruit and retain in the profession.

More worrisome is the public utterance it has drawn on educational standard in recent times. The unhappiness becomes more prominent following the dismay academic performance of pupil’s seeking admission into the secondary schools. The query often pose is, whether teachers in these public schools being the most important factor in the effectiveness of schools and in the quality of a child’s education are competent to teach effectively or not. One major concern raised on teachers’ qualification has been relatively high in aspect of teachers, teaching subjects outside their areas of subject matter training certification.

The incidence of out of field teaching has been seen to vary by subject and by grade level. Out of field teaching also has been applicable to occur more often in the classrooms of low- income learners, Ingersoll (2009). Many people assume that teaching is what anybody can do if he/she knows his subjects. On the contrary, before one can teach effectively in any class such person must have schooled in the arts or sciences of school teaching. Owing to this, one disputed that to employ adequate number of teachers cannot solve educational problems rather than having well qualified in the kit. For one to be qualified and competent teacher one must have undergone a professional training as a teacher.

Though, a good number of the supposed teachers lack this virtue. In support of the above assertion it is highly regretted that not only support of the above assertion in teaching that not only will an unqualified teacher impart imperfect knowledge and promote low quality of education but he is likely to be deficient in the use of instructional material in teaching.

Instructional materials play an indispensable role in teaching

And learning process as they stimulate thinking, understanding and concretizes pupils’ learning. Presence of qualified teacher will ensure that sufficient materials are provided to guide the learning process. Instructional materials can be subdivided into three (3) categories viz-a-viz audio visual, reading and community resources. The use of these resources plays a complementary role in both teachers and learners, especially where the subject matter is highly concerned.

The subject social education in Nigeria is fast expanding due to its objectives to man. It is a programme of study that helps with the interaction of knowledge, experience and effective use of resources for the purpose of citizenship education. It enables one to acquire problem easily solving skills, which helps an individual to handle environmental struggles easily. In realizing the important reasons why the subject is taught in school equips a quailed and competent teacher who will impact the correct knowledge to enable learners use its knowledge in solving man’s immediate problem in the society. The subject cannot be effectively learnt without the help of a qualified teacher in the area who can effectively make good use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process. A teachers qualification means the highest educational certificate possessed by the teacher in a subject. Social studies cannot stand in isolations of the duo forces of a teacher and instructional materials. Morgan (2003) and Hayes (2000) lamented that the qualification of a teacher is a crucial factor in promoting effective learning including social studies, while instructional material perform such function as the extension of range of experience available to learn supplement and complement of the teacher’s vast explanations, thereby making learning experience richer and thus providing the teacher with interest into a wide variety of learning activities.



Firstly, problem of unqualified teachers who are handling the subjects in our primary schools especially had been perceived to be contributing toward pupils poor academic performance in school. It is one thing for a person to be professionally trained in a particular discipline, example social studies, it is another thing for the person to have the opportunity to work in that field notother wise. Experience has shown that a qualified teachers will teach the subjects better at all level of education.  Secondly, the fact that less attention is paid to the provision and use of instructional materials was identified to be another problem. The impact of instructional material on teaching and learning process cannot be jeopardized in anyway. A lot of research have been conducted in this regard. The results have proved that schools with adequate instructional materials perform better than those without it instructional material. Oladejo, Olusunde,

Ojobisi, and Isoia (2001).

Two major issues raised are: how adequate are the provided instructional materials? And if fully provided, then to what extent are the instructionals are being put to use?. Instructional materials if well used perform important functions as the extension of the range of experience available to learners’ verbal explanation.

Lastly the failure of teacher training colleges in the production of qualitative manpower has been recognized. These training programmes have been carried out through a crash programme in recent times resulting to mere awarding of certificates without the full acquisition of knowledge by the recipients. This was supported by Adeniyi (2011) who, criticized the education sector for the quality of her products owing to the high level attached to honour and respect given to paper certificates. This attribute has forced they employer of labour to have lost confidence in paper certificates awarded and as such have organized retraining programmes for those who secure appointments in their schools. The remedies to the above problems identified will no doubt contribute greatly towards the better academic performance of the pupils in social education. Bearing in mind that the success of any subject depends on the quality of teachers and instructional materials effectively put to use. Therefore, the problem of this study is an authoritative information on the Impact of Teachers’ Qualification and Instructional Materials on Pupils Performance in PRIMARY SCHOOLS, in Nigeria.


This study is being carried out specifically to achieve the following objectives these include:

  1. To verify the impact of teachers’ qualification on pupils’ performance in primary schools.
  2. To find out the extent that instructional materials enhance academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
  3. To identify the level of male and female pupils’ academic performance in selected primary schools.



The following questions have been carefully formulated in this study for which answers were sought.

  1. What is the impact of teachers’ qualification on pupils’ academic performance in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent is teachers’ usage of instructional material enhancing academic performance of pupils in Nigeria?
  3. What is the level of male and female pupils’ academic performance in Nigeria?



The following null – hypotheses were tested in this study at

0.05 level of significance.

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils who were taught by qualified teachers and those who were taught by unqualified teacher, in Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils who were taughtusing instructional materials and those who were taught the subject without the use of instructional materials.


There is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female pupils who where taught under the usage of instructional materials, in Nigeria.
1.6   Significance of the Study
The research work is determined to ascertain the impact of teachers’ qualification and


instructional materials on academic performance of pupils. Specifically the study under investigation could be significant to the following stakeholders: teachers, learners, government, school policy makers as well as curriculum planners.

First, the study will help in improving the standard of education not only to primary school but to all levels of educational system. This is because the study has recognized the importance of teacher and her qualification, measured alongside the instructional material to the success of any educational system. Owing to this, the concerned authorities will need to handle manpower and instructional materials with adequate care, put to proper use and ensure its prompt and regulate supply to school.

Secondly, the relevance of this study can be found in how it will facilitate collaboration between the policy makers and the government execution on policy formulation and execution relating to the funding, provision, control and management of resources in education. Issues among these are teachers and the instructional materials.  Thirdly, the study helps to identify the importance of education in the learners, in and out of school especially in moulding their character, attitude and ways of acting the societal expectation. This is not realizable without the help of competent and qualified teachers who make good use of their working tools (instructional materials). It is noted that teachers who are most valuable to education are those who use instructional materials simplified the lesson much better to the learners. Lastly, it also become necessity to note that the outcome of this study will help to strengthen the teacher’s education processes not only at awarding certificate to perspective student teachers but to equip them with knowledge and skills essential for a good living.



This research work covered all the public primary schools in Nigeria. The subjects for the study comprise teachers and pupil from the two local government primary schools in Southern Nigeria. The authorities of Education L.G.A are headed by executive secretaries (ES). The choice of the study area was precipitated poor academic performance, poor usage of instructional materials among others. However, the study will be delimited to some selected public primary schools in the two Local Government Areas .