CHALLENGES OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN A SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL NIGERIAN SOCIETY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Requirement –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Certification –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Dedication –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Acknowledgments-        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Preface –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        viii

Abstract –   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2 Statement of the Problem –         –    –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.3 Purpose of the Study –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.4 Significance of the Study – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        7

1.5 Scope of the Study –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

1.6 Methodology –         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

1.7 Definition of Terms –         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW–    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        14

2.1 Concept of Science and Technology –   –        –        –        –        –        14     

2.2 The relationship between science/technology and the church-    17     

2.3 Factors Responsible for Scientific and Technological Development-  21     

2.4 Summary of the Literature Review –     –        –        –        –        –        31

CHAPTER THREE

THE IMPACT OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS ON THE CHURCH

3.1 Positive Impact-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32     

3.2 Negative Impact –    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        42     

CHAPTER FOUR

THE ROLE OF THE CHURCH IN CONTROLLING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

4.1 The Use of Doctrine –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        50     

4.2 Gospel Message –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54     

4.3 Court of Inquisition/Canon Court –      –        –        –        –        –        58     

4.4 Crusades –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        60     

4.5 Dialogues –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        63     

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Principal Findings-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        65     

5.2 Contributions to Knowledge –     –        –        –        –        –        –        66     

5.3 Recommendations – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        68     

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research –       –        –        –        –        –        70     

5.5 Conclusion –   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        71     

Bibliography –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        72     

ABSTRACT

In Nigeria, it is believed that the world of science/technology and the church are not completely in friendly term. Some of the propositions propounded by science/technology are very much distasteful to the church and this ensued bitter enmity between the church and science/technology irrespective of the positive impact science/technology has on human society including the church.  Hence, this work presents a discussion on the impact of scientific and technological world and the challenges to the church using secondary source of data collection, besides personal observation, to explain facts about the subject matter. Though science and technology make impressive impact on the progress of the society, it is discovered that science and technology exist along with some negative aspects that are challenging to the church. However, these negative aspects are dependent on the manoeuver of science and technology by man as observed from the data. Taking cognizance of the findings, the researcher made some recommendations capable of addressing the problems discovered, and some suggestions for further research which may help future researchers to unravel more facts about the relationship between the church and science/technology. Finally the conclusion is drawn that science/technology, if well controlled, can exists side by with the church in a mutual relationship.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Many questions about science and technology in relation to religion abound in our society. Such questions as whether science is a blessing or a curse? Can science and technology take man to the divine realm? Is there mutual relationship between scientific/technological world and the world of religion? Can the concept of science or technology mar our religious faith?

Looking at the other side of science/technology, we are faced with serious challenges in consideration of the above questions because the development of any country is largely dependent on well planned and properly directed scientific and technological education. This is to say that no country or nation can develop without science/technology. Olarere (1999: 13) reinforces this by saying that the fulcrum upon which any nation develop from primitive stage to industrialized, advanced stage is science/technology. Hence, science/technology has done a lot and is still doing marvelously more in the promotion of human life. It has reduced the entire world into a global village so that one can obtain information from any part of this planet sitting inside his/her room. Expressing his appreciation to scientific/technological achievement, Hogg (2009:3) averred that a beggar in India might pause in his solicitations to make or take a call on his phone. This is an explanation of how science/technology helps all classes of people. Both the rich and the poor make use of science/technology. With the development of science and technology, there is great improvement in all the sphere of human existence. Now one can conveniently leave  Lagos-Nigeria for Washington in America to have a chat with a friend or a relation within twelve hours, a journey that can take a crude boat not less than one year to accomplish. The invention of megaphone has made it possible for one to address enormous crowd. For instance, a pastor uses a megaphone in delivering sermon to his congregation. This calls to mind Asogwa’s (2005: 23) assertion that religion makes science and science to an extent makes religion. It is therefore, hard to separate science/technology from religion making each to exist independent of one another. In our society today, if there are people who make much, use of the scientific and technological products they are the pastors of the churches and their members. In Nigerian Christian community one can hardly get a priest without a car. In their respective houses, there are all sort of electronic gadgets and electrical appliances. Many programmes in the church are recorded electronically. Hence, all these can help us to answer some questions put forward on the relationship between science/technology and religion.

CHALLENGES OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN A SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL NIGERIAN SOCIETY