CORRUPTION IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS. A CASE STUDY OF THE 2015/2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA CAMPAIGN FINANCE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vii
List of tables – – – – – – – – – x
Abstract – – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 2
1.4 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 3
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis – – – – – – – 3
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – – 3
1.7 Scope and limitations of the Study – – – – – –
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definitions and Nature of Corruption in Nigeria – – – – –
2.2 Causes of Corruption in Nigeria – – – – – – –
2.3 Effect of Corruption in the Electoral Process – – – – – –
2.4 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – –
2.4.1 Clienteles theory – – – – – – – – –
2.4.2 Broken windows theory – – – – – – – –
2.4.3 Applicability of the Theories in the Context of the Research – – – –
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design of the Study – – – – – – – – –
3.2 Sources of Data – – – – – – – – –
3.2.1 Primary sources of Data – – – – – – – –
3.2.2 Secondary Sources of Data – – – – – – – –
3.3 The Study of Area – – – – – – – – –
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – – – –
3.5 Sample Size – – – – – – – – – –
3.5.1 Sampling Technique and Procedure – – – – – – –
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – –
3.6.1 Validity of Research Instrument – – – – – – –
3.6.2 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – – – – –
3.6.3 Administration of the Instrument – – – – – – –
3.7 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – –
3.7.1 Methods of Data Analysis – – – – – – – –
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – –
4.2 Discussion of Findings – – – – – – – –

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary of Findings – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – –
5.4 Recommendation – – – – – – – – –
References – – – – – – – – – –

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Number of respondents
Table 2: Gender
Table 3: Age
Table 4: Academic Level
Table 5: attempted to verify if the level of corruption in the Campaigning and Financing the 2015/2019 presidential electoral process in Nigeria is high

ABSTRACT

Corruption is one of the socioeconomic malaises that has bedeviled the Nigerian state for many decades which virtually eroded all aspects of good governance and effective service delivery to the populace. It has affected democratic governance particularly the electoral process with vote buying, bribing of electoral body officials and manipulation of the entire process. This research investigated how corruption affected the electoral process and outcome of the 2015/2019 presidential elections. A tentative analysis was conducted where some agencies and stakeholders that are related to the area of study were selected for interview including the Independent National Electoral Commission , Economic Financial Crime Commission , Politicians and party stakeholders, Academics and members of the general public who participated in the voting process of the elections. The research discovered that the entire process of the 2015/2019 presidential elections was affected by corruption and corrupt practices in terms of using public treasury for campaign activities by politicians from the two major political parties APC and PDP in their campaign and other electoral activities comprising of vote buying, excessive media campaign, spending above limit and bribing of INEC officials. The research recommended that, for corruption to be eschewed in the electoral process, the formulation of government policies for the effective eradication of excessive spending in the elections, and also the banning of candidates found guilty of corruption in the electoral process.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting in elected government through an electoral process, who in turn return democratic dividends to the people. The issue of corruption constitutes a fundamental phenomenon in our contemporary society as it has affected various sectors of the economy and fundamentally impeded the electoral process in Nigeria. Nigeria has over the years suffered from corruption and the effect has exacted untold hardship on the living standard of the people and hindered the pace of development of the economy of the nation. Election riggings in Nigeria has dealt a huge blow to the development of democracy in Nigeria. Nigeria’s elections so far have not lived up to expectations due to various forms of electoral manipulations which has denied the country credible free and fair elections in her body politic.

Election rigging has not only marred democratic consolidation in Nigeria but has also violated the fundamental human right of citizens. Electoral fraud, sometimes referred to as election fraud, election manipulation or vote rigging, is the process of interfering in the electoral process illegally with the intention of adding votes in favor of a particular candidate, reducing the votes of the rival candidates, or both. Rigging of an election involves the manipulation of the voting process or the counting of ballots so as to produce a false result which distort the outcome of the election, and it’s a systematic effort to do that. It’s trying to get a different count at the end of the election from what the voters actually wanted. The Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Act, defines corruption as bribery, fraud and other related offences.
It covers the deliberate giving and receipt of gratification or bribes to influence the execution of public responsibility, deceitful acquisition and receipt of properties and with full impairment of investigation by ICPC. The Black’s Law dictionary views corruption as the damage of integrity, virtue, or moral principle as it applies to public official duties. The study seeks to appraise corruption in the electoral process. A case study of the 2015/2019 presidential election in Nigeria. Campaigning and Financing.
Statement of the Problem
The current state of politics in Nigeria is far drifting away from the principles of democracy. This due to the fact that political party leaders and those in power do no longer recognize the will of the people. They dominate the people and give no chance for the people to exercise their free will in the electoral process. There have been cases where some people have been threatened and some attacked for not belonging to a particular party or not in support of a particular candidate. The situation where the political will of the people are suppressed is not in line with the principle of democracy.
Electoral frauds which among other things include electoral rigging is the order of the day. Politicians now interfere with the electoral process so as to force the people to vote against their will. And sometimes falsify votes in favor of a particular candidate. The problem confronting the study is to appraise corruption in the electoral process in Nigeria.

1.3 Research Questions
1 What is the nature of corruption in the electoral process?
2 What is the nature of corruption in the electoral process of the 2015/2019 presidential election in Nigeria?
What is the level of corruption in Campaigning and Financing the 2015/2019 presidential electoral process in Nigeria?

1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of the study include;
To determine the level of corruption in the electoral process of the 2015/2019 presidential election in Nigeria.
To determine the level of corruption in Campaigning and Financing the 2015/2019 presidential electoral process in Nigeria.

CORRUPTION IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS. A CASE STUDY OF THE 2015/2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN NIGERIA CAMPAIGN FINANCE