EFFECTS OF STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT PROGRAMME ON ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES (A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL BANK F.C.T ABUJA)

593

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Before the “Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)” can be clearly defined, one must have a better understanding of the situation into which it was introduced. At the conclusion of a Debate/Symposium on “Devaluation” held in 1982 at the Institute of International Affairs, the consensus emerged that the economic problem of Nigeria was structural. The intention of SAP is to adjust the structure of the Nigerian economy, but what is the structure of the economy and why does it need adjustment? The relevant dictionary meaning of the word “structure” is “the arrangement or interrelation of all part of a whole”. At the summary of overall economic level which the economist call “The macro level”, the structure f the economy is its composition as seen through the shares or proportion of the various component parts or economic aggregated, in the total sum of goods and services produced in a period usually a year. Therefore, the structure of the economy is shown by the shares of the various economic sectors in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Just like any other theory, accountants have discovered that they need to make certain assumption before they can prepare financial statements. These assumptions, which underline the preparation of financial statements, are also known as principles, postulates, conventions, concepts, and standards etc. The originate from such concepts as entity, going-concern, periodicity realisation, matching, consistency and historical cost concept. They have been described as the basic points of agreement upon which the preparation of financial statement are based. They act as filters in the process of preparing financial statement and therefore assist immensely in selecting data to be processed and also indicating the processing method and thereby affecting the final result. Accounting Principles are usually rules and conventions, which have been adopted as a general guide to action by the accountancy profession. These principles are formulated in such a way that the practical details of accounting may differ greatly from one company to another. To ensure acceptance, an accounting principle must be useful in coping with a practical recording problem, it must be reasonably objective, that is, provide a similar answer in the hands of qualified practitioners, and it must be feasible, that is, it should not be expensive to apply. 
1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS 
This research work tends to give an appraisal on the effect of the SAP on accounting principle. Exchange rate devaluation was considered a setback in the progress of the SAP. Therefore the under listed problem was discovered: 
i. Over emphasis on the restoration of balance of payment
ii. Undermine the economy and limit its role for socio-economic intervention through a fixation on deregulation, privatisation and instability of the economy in the name of “free market” 
iii. Exacerbate the disparities between rich the poor by facilitating income concentration by the wealthy and the exclusion of the poor from decisions and control over resources. 
iv. Lack of transparency, accountability and public participation in their design and implementation. 
v. Make many necessities inaccessible to local people as currency devaluations drastically reduce buying power in local wages. 
1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 
This study aims to find out the objectives which include;
i. To find out how adopting a more just and equitable approach to resolving the debt crisis can restore the balance of payment 
ii. To find out how to increase the role of socio-economic intervention through governmental control and stabilize the economy by eliminating free market trade through inflationary measures like naira devaluation. 
iii. To determine what causes inequality in the distribution of income between the classes of individuals and why the poor are excluded from resources control and decisions. 
iv. To find out why there is lack of transparency and accountability in SAP designs and implementations. 
v. To evaluate on the inaccessible necessities of the rural migrants caused by currency devaluation which decreases the naira value?