EMPLOYERS LIABILITY IN CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

0
105

ABSTRACT

The contract of employment has assigned duties and rights both under common law and statutes to the employer and employee. The law will fail to protect the employee adequately if the duties of the employer are not adequately enforced, since the rights of an employee are directly predicated upon the performance of the employer’s duties. Although an employer owes a general duty of are lawful visitors to his premises, he owes his employees at common law, a personal duty of care which is to take reasonable care for the safety of his employees in the course f their employment. In Nigeria, the legal protection of the employee’s right through adequate enforcement of the employers’ duties is of uttermost importance in view of the scarcity of employment opportunities, which predisposes the employed to unfair terms of employment. This research examines the liability of a employer to pay compensation for personal injuries suffered by employees in the course of their employment under the Employee’s Compensation Act as well as the conditions for entitlement to compensation, the nature of the risks covered by the Act, the remedies open to an injured employee and the defences available to an employer. This research further discusses that the rates of compensation recoverable under the Employee’s Compensation Act is too narrowly construed by the courts and therefore calls for holistic review of the rated of compensation in line with current economic realities in Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication                  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract                      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of Content         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Cases               –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

List of Statute             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem       –           –           –           –           –           12

1.3       Objectives of the Study          –           –           –           –           –           13

1.4       Research Questions     –           –           –           –           –           –           14

1.5       Significance of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           14

1.6       Scope of the Study     –           –           –           –           –           –           15

1.7       Research Methodology           –           –           –           –           –           15

1.8       Literature Review       –           –           –           –           –           –           16

1.9       Definition of Terms    –           –           –           –           –           –           21

CHAPTER TWO

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF EMPLOYERS LIABILITY

2.1       Labour and Industrial Relations in Nigeria    –           –           –           24

2.2       Scope of Contract of Employment     –           –           –           –           37

2.3       Formation of Contract of Employment          –           –           –           41

2.4       Terms of a Contract of Employment  –           –           –           –           42

2.5       Historical Background of Employer’s Liability          –           –           44

2.6       Basis of the Employer’s Liability       –           –           –           –           47

CHAPTER THREE

DUTIES OF THE EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE’S RIGHTS

3.1       Sources of the Employer’s Duties      –           –           –           –           49

3.2     The Common Law Duties           –        –        –        –        50

3.2.1    Duty to Make Available Proper Tools and Plants for Work   –           51

3.2.2    Safe Place of Work     –           –           –           –           –           –           52

3.2.3    Safe and Secure System of Work and Supervision    –           –           52

3.2.4   Competent Staff with reasonably Competent Fellow Employees       52

3.3       The Statutory Duties   –           –           –           –           –           –           53

3.3.1    Adequate Training of Workers           –           –           –           –           54

3.3.2    Payment of Wages      –           –           –           –           –           –           54

3.3.3    Provision of Safe Sanitary and Humane Conditions of Work           55

3.3.4    Annual Holiday with Pay       –           –           –           –           –           55

3.3.5    Sick Leave      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

3.3.6    Employee’s Compensation     –           –           –           –           –           56

3.4       Industrial Injuries Occupational Diseases, Employee’s

Welfare and Social Security Under Employee’s

Compensation Act, 2010        –           –           –           –           –           56

3.4.1    Application of the Employee’s Compensation Act, 2010                  58

3.4.2    Who is an Employee? –           –           –           –           –           –           59

3.4.3    Who is an Employer?  –           –           –           –           –           –           60

3.4.4    Industrial Injury and Disablement                  –           –           –           60

3.4.5    Types of Injury and Compensation Payable   –           –           –           62

3.4.6    Accidents Occurring Out of and in the Course of Employment        64

3.4.7    Occupational or Industrial Disease                 –           –           –           68

3.4.8    What is Occupational or Industrial Disease    –           –           –           69

3.4.9    Vicarious Liability      –           –           –           –           –           –           70

3.5       Rights of the Employer and Employee           –           –           –           70

3.5.1    Rights of the Employer           –           –           –           –           –           70

3.5.2    Right of an Employee –           –           –           –           –           –           73

CHAPTER FOUR

BREACH OF LIABILITY, REMEDIES AND DEFENCES

4.1       Contractual Breach and Employer’s Liability            –           –           77

4.2       Breach of Liability by the Employer  –           –           –           80

4.3       Proof of Liability        –           –           –           –           –           –           82

4.3.1    What is your Employment Status       –           –           –           –           82

4.3.2    What is Employment Contract?          –           –           –           –           82

4.4       Remedies for Employee’s       –           –           –           –           –           83

4.4.1    Breach by Employer               –           –           –           –           –           83

4.4.2    Breach by Employee               –           –           –           –           –           84

4.4.3    Contracts         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           84

4.4.4    Law     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           85

4.5       Remedies for License –           –           –           –           –           –           86

EMPLOYERS LIABILITY IN CONTRACTS OF EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA