FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CALABAR MUNICIPAL COUNCIL CROSS RIVER STATE

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education is the panacea for technological advancement of any nation. The progress of any nation depends largely on the technological know – how of that country. It was in realization of the fact that only technological education can emancipate us from the western economic and technological slavery, that the National Policy on Education (1977), revised (1981) recommended expand technical institutions in the country. In 1979, all secondary schools in the country were required to oer Introductory Technology along side other subjects as one of the compulsion subjects at the Junior Secondary School Level. It has been observed that the curriculum of our schools before the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system was too academic, theoretically oriented and failed to address the needs and aspirations of the Nation. The system turned out job seekers instead of job creators. The search for a functional curriculum, which will address the needs and yearning of the nation, led to the emergence of the 6- 3- 3-4 system in 1982. The curriculum contains among other things pre-vocational subjects, which included introductory technology; Home Economics and Business Education, which are compulsory at the Junior Secondary Schools. Introductory technology as an integrated subject included- woodwork, metal work, basic electricity /electronics, building construction, technical drawing, plastic and rubber technology, and auto/ mechanical work. Introductory technology lays the foundation for the acquisition of skills and knowledge that are basic for technological development. The skills and knowledge acquired at the this level will equip the students to be self reliant if they are unable to study beyond the Junior Secondary School Level.

According to Nnadi (1988) “The new system would ensure that the basic foundation is laid easily for the acquisition and utilization of knowledge and skill on which the technological programme the country would continue to depend”. It is intended that the programme would launch Nigeria into the technological new world order. It is sad to mention that resources are grossly inadequate for the teaching of this important subject in our schools, especially schools in Calabar, Cross River State where, in some places, buildings to house the equipment / machines do not exist, while in some places there and building, equipment and machines but no electricity and workshop exist there by making it difficult for the equipment / machines to be installed. It is not only the material resources that are in short supply but also human resources and ideologies.

Adigin (1974 :137) indicated that “evidence, abounds to show that the supply of introductory technology teachers is grossly inadequate both in number and quality. Although the literature has shown that there is acute shortage of resources for the teaching of the subject, in other places, it is equally important to ascertain the extent of the factors militating against the performance of students in introductory technology in Cross River State, basically in Calabar Municipal Council Area of the state.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

After graduation of students studying Introductory Technology from the Junior Secondary School Level of Education, they hardly exhibit simple technological skills; hence they fail in most of the challenges they face while in the labour market. With the lack of knowledge of tools and poor standard workshop arrangement, lack of competent instructor, poor guidance and counseling an vast curriculum, all result to some of the factors militating against the performance of students in Introductory Technology in the Junior Secondary School Level. The questions addressed are as follows: 1. What effects does the curriculum has on the performance of the students in Introductory Technology? 2. What effects does the available resources for the teaching of introductory technology has on the students? 3. What effects does the motivation of technical teachers have on the performance of students in Introductory Technology? 4. What effects does effective guidance and counseling has on the performance of Introductory Technology Students?

FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CALABAR MUNICIPAL COUNCIL CROSS RIVER STATE