HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF ADETA AREA, ILORIN, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………….i                                                                  

Certification………………………………………………………………            ii

Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………..           iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………..          iv

Table of contents…………………………………………………………….           v

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………            vi

List of  Figures………………………………………………………………          vii

List of  Plates…………………………………………………………..         viii

Abstract………………………………………………                        ix                                                                                

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       General Statement                                                             

1.2       Aim and Objectives

1.3       Scope of the Study

1.4       The Study Area

1.4.1    Location and Extent of the Study Area

1.4.2    Climate and Vegetation

1.5       Water Quality and Principles of Hydrogeochemstry

1.6       Engineering Geology of soil

1.7        Literature Review

CHAPTER TWO

2.0        Geology

2.1         Geology of Nigeria

2.2        Geology of the Study Area

2.3       Hydrogeology of the Area

2.4       Hydrogeochemistry of the Area

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Methodology                                                 

3.1       Materials Use while in the Field

3.2       Desk Work

3.3       Reconnaissance Survey

3.4       Field Work

3.4.1    Hydrogeological Mapping

3.5        Sampling                            

3.6      Laboratory Analysis

3.6.1    ICP-MS and AAS

3.6.1    Grain Size Distribution

3.6.2    Atterberg’s Consistency Limits

3.4.3     Permeability Test

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0        Result and Discussions

4.1        Flow Direction

4.2 Hydro geochemistry of the Area        

4.2.1     Major Ions in Water

4.2.2.1 Statistical Distributions

4.2.2.2 Plots and Ratios

4.2.3     Heavy metals

4.2.3.1 Statistical Distribution

4.2.3.2 Water Quality Index Calculation

4.3         Geotechnical Survey Results

4.3.2      Result and Discussion of Grain Size Analysis

4.3.3      Result and Discussion of Atterberg’s Limit

4.3.4      Result and Discussion of Permeability Test

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0         Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1         Conclusion

5.1.1    Groundwater flow

5.1.2    Hydrochemistry and Water Quality

5.1.3    Engineering Properties of Soils

5.2       Recommendation

              References

ABSTRACT

A study on hydrogeochemistry and quality of shallow water and engineering properties of soil around Adeta area in Ilorin was carried out based on data obtained from the field and laboratory. Groundwater flow, descriptive, and multivariant statistical analyses, piper, stiff and durov diagrams, as well water quality indices were used to describe hydrochemistry and water quality suitability of the area. Grain-size distribution, Atterberg limit and permeability indices were used to determine the soil properties. The results showed that groundwater flow is in NE-SW direction.  The cations occur in order of abundance of Ca>Na>K>Mg and anions are in the order of Cl>SO4>NO3>HCO3. The hydrogeochemical trends showed that the water type in the area is Na+K –SO4+Cl from both piper and durov diagrams. The stiff diagram indicates three water type group; Na-Cl, Ca-CO3 and Mg-SO4.  The grain size analysis showed that sample S1 have 5.4% clay, 5.0 % Silt, 30 % Fine sand 36.3 % Coarse sand and 20,8% Gravel with  CU of 1.33 and CC of 0.4; sample S2 has 0.1% clay, 0,7%  silt, 41.2% fine sand, 48.3 % Coarse sand and 6.9 % fine gravel with CU of 5.3 and CC 2.5;  sample S3 have 1.1% clay, 0.8% silt, 40.2% fine sand, 51.5% coarse sand and 6.5% fine gravel, with CU of 4.67 and CC 1.7.Samples S2 and S3 can be classified as coarse SAND; samples S1 can be classified as slightly gravelly SAND, based on USC table of soil distribution.  Therefore, based on the above classification, all the soil samples are poorly graded. The result of the permeability shows that sample S1 have coefficient of permeability of 7.7×10-4mm/s, S2 has 1.9×10-4mm/s, S3 and 8.0×10-5mm/s. Sample S1, S2, and S3, have liquid limit of 30, 30 and 35 respectively and plastic values of 31.3, 28.3 and 33.3 respectively with plasticity index of -1, 3, 1.7 and 1.7 respectively.Consistency test based on liquid limit and plastic limit values of an average of 31.7 and 30.97 with plastic index of 1.7indicating a medium plasticity state. The low LI and PI values are an indication of no changes in pore fluid characteristics of soil.The shallow water is contamination with Mn andthe soil for the areahas poor permeability to promote migration of the Mn.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL STATEMENT

Increase in population and rapid expansion of cities has resulted to generation of huge waste and the manner these wastes are disposed constitutes serious health and environmental problems.Interactions between water and host rock influenced groundwater hydrochemistry and determine its suitability for most purpose. The variations in groundwater chemistry is controlled by these major geochemical processes, Weathering reaction, Ion exchange, dissolution, redox, etc.(Mathes, 1982; Kumar et al., 2006), because as groundwater flows, its chemistry will evolve, as it interacts with aquifer minerals or internal mixing among different groundwater (Domenico, 1972). So, hydrochemical processes help to get an insight into the contributions of rock-water interaction and anthropogenic influences. Soil and groundwater acidification and nitrification have been linked to waste dumps (Bacud et al., 1994) as well as microbial contamination of soil and groundwater system (Awomeso et al., 2010). Sia Su (2008) attributed cancer,heart diseases and teratogenic abnormalities to groundwater contamination via leachate from waste dumps. In Engineering geology, soil is vital to any construction and forms a larger portion of the construction materials and basically forms the foundation for their structure. Such geotechnical test enable technical evaluation of the suitability of soil to support a design structure, such geotechnical test include: gain size analysis, Atterberg limits, permeability test, moisture content, consolidation, compaction and mineral composition analysis etc.Ilorin, as in most cities in Nigeria lack modern landfill facilities, all depend on open dumpsite that lack sorting and recycling mechanisms. This poor management will create number of adverse environmental challenges, such as pollution of underground soil bed and/or aquifer (Albores et al.,2007; Okoronkwo et al.,2006).   In the past, studies on groundwater exploitation, geotechnical, environmental geology and contamination status in the part of Ilorin include, Olasehinde 1999; Sulyman, 2007, Ige and Ogunsanwo 2009; Ojulari et al.,2014; Owolabi et al., 2016. Ige and Ogunsanwo, 2009evaluate the effects of leachate from open landfill in the Ita-Amo area of Ilorin, southwestern Nigeria. Proper understanding of the properties of the soils around dumpsite will throw light on the activities of the leachates in relation to the contamination of the groundwater.     Hence this research work involves investigation of water chemistry of shallow aquifer and preliminary soil investigation around Adeta in Ilorin-West Local Government Area of Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is to study the impact of open waste dump on the subsurface and the objectives are:

  • To describe Hydro geochemistry of shallow water
  • To investigate heavy metals concentration in shallow water
  • To evaluate the influence of geo technical properties of the soils around selected wells study area.
  • To examine the effect of was teon underground water
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY AND ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF ADETA AREA, ILORIN, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA.