IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES AND ITS EFFECTIVE USE IN IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING SITUATION IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS

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IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES AND ITS EFFECTIVE USE IN IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING SITUATION IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS (EDUCATION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Education, according to Coombs (2000) consists of two components.  He classified these two components into inputs and outputs.  According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as kits, textbooks, magazines, Newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies, videos, video discs, workbooks, and electronic media including but not limited to music, movies, radio, software, CD-ROMs, and online services. Instructional material plays a very important role in the teaching-learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time, education has spread wide and the entirely oral teaching cannot  be  the  key  to  successful  pedagogy;  therefore,  the  teacher  has  to  use  instructional  material  to make  the  teaching-learning  process  interesting  (Nicholls,  2000;  Raw,  2003).  The use of instructional material can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbac (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory.  Situations,  the  situation  consists  of  all  the  objects,  persons  and  symbols  in  learner environments.  Experience  in  situation  prepares  a  person  to  respond  to  similar  situation  in  the  future. Situation must be created in which learner may feel satisfaction.  Personal characterizes under this heading we include all the abilities and all the typical responses that the person brings to the situation.

Use of instructional material can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest. Goal: the goal of the learner is that he wishes to attain. Since goals direct efforts, the teacher problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional material in which the learner will see goals he wants to attain.  Interpretation:  Person  interprets situation  in  order  to  take  action  If  relevant  aids are made available it will be easy for a teacher and student to predict that what can be expected to happen if  various  actions  are  taken.  Action:  A  person  chooses  whatever  action  he  expects  to  give  him  the greatest  satisfaction.

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IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES AND ITS EFFECTIVE USE IN IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING SITUATION IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS (EDUCATION PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS)

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