IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION IN SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

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IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION IN SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study     –        –        –        –        –

1.2    Statement of General Problem     –        –        –        –

1.3    Objective of the Study –        –        –        –        –        –

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –

1.5    Hypothesis   –      –      –      –      –      –      –        –        –

1.6    Significance of the Study     –        –        –        –        –

1.7    Scope of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        –

1.8    Definition of Terms      –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.2    Theoretical Framework         –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.3. Green House Gas Emissions      –  –        –        –        –        –

2.4. Power Plants     –  –        –        –        –        –        –         –        –

2.5. What is the Term Gas Flaring?    –  –        –        –        –        –

2.6. Origin of Gas Flaring               –        –        –        –        –        –

2.7. Culprits in Niger Delta Oil, Flares and Power Plants     –     –

2.8. Environmental and health impacts of Gas Flaring/Power Plants Emissions                –                  –        –

2.9 Barriers to Gas Flaring Utilization      –       –        –        –        –

2.9. Environmental Management Theories    –         –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.2    Research Design        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.3    Research Methodology        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis   –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        –

References –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study              

Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Eighty percent of marine pollution comes from land. Air pollution is also a contributing factor by carrying off pesticides or dirt into the ocean. Land and air pollution have proven to be harmful to marine life and its habitats.

The pollution often comes from non point sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris and dust. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algae growth.

Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains. Many particles combine chemically in a manner highly depletive of oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic.

When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem, they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.

Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs. These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products.

 

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IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION IN SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

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