SANITARY PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS ON OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS HEALTH

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SANITARY PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS ON OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS HEALTH

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Most large Nigeria cities are overcrowded, due to urban attraction and developments such as universities, job opportunities, security and so on. Little controlled urban growth leads to poor management of solid and liquid wastes produced by cities. This leads to many problems of sanitation. The sanitation in these cities is generally dominated by self purification works. They often repress wastewater that trickles down in living quarter streets emitting strong foul odours (Strauss, Downing, Rondon, 1994).

Disease related to poor sanitation and water availability cause many people to die of sickness like cholera, diarrhea, typhoid which damages the body tissues. Children are most vulnerable to health hazards and consequently are affected the most. In 1998, 2.2 million people died because of poor sanitation, which the vast majority were children (WHO, 2004).

There has been considerable awareness of water supply in off-campus hostels, but the problems of excreta and waste disposal have received less attention. In some of these hostels, every where is littered with pure water polythene, pieces of paper and so on, without proper disposal (Erijakpor, 2006). In order to focus attention to these to these problems, sanitation exercises should be done daily to keep the environment clean by employing labourers that will keep the hostels clean(Anyaka, 2004). Some of the students in these hostels have poor sanitary and hygienic practices that can cause diseases. Environments should be fumigated in order to kill dangerous animals and rodents like snakes, rats, scorpions etc.

Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households, school hostels (on campus or off-campus) and across communities (Guiterez, 1992). The word “sanitation” also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.

Sanitation includes all four of these engineering infrastructure items (even though often only the first one is strongly associated with the term “sanitation”):

Excreta management systems

Wastewater management systems

Solid waste management systems

Drainage systems for rainwater.(Strauss, 2000).

The term sanitation has been connected to several descriptors so that the terms sustainable sanitation, improved sanitation, unimproved sanitation, ecological sanitation, environmental sanitation, on-site sanitation, dry sanitation are all in use today (Obode, 1989).

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SANITARY PRACTICES AND IMPLICATIONS ON OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS HEALTH

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