SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL USING ZIRCONIUM (IV) OXIDE AND AMMONIUM TRIOXOVANADATE (V)

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ABSTRACT

           A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of paracetamol was explored, using zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) oxides. The method was based on the oxidation of paracetamol by zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) in  alkaline and acidic media respectively. The stoichiometric studies indicated a mole-ratio of 1:1 for the reactions of paracetamol with both zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V). Effects of other variables like pH, temperature and time were determined and showed that the optimum conditions for the oxidation of paracetamol by zr(IV) were pH of 9.0,  temperature of 50˚C and at 20 min yielding red- brown p-benzoquinone which absorbed at a λmax of 420 nm. Similarly, optimum conditions for the oxidation of paracetamol by V(V) were pH of 1.0, temperature of 70˚C at 8 min, and V(V) reduced to bluish-violet vanadium(II) ions which absorbed at a λmax of 600 nm. The Beer-Lambert’s law was obeyed at a concentration range of 5.0-40.0 μg/cm3 for paracetamol with both Zr(IV) and V(V) respectively; and the correlation coefficients for both oxidants were 0.997 and 0.999 respectively. The mean % recovery of paracetamol in dosage form with Zr(IV) was 99.06 %, while V(V) gave 100.17 %. Hence, the recovery studies had proved the method to be accurate, simple and precise.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Spectroscopy involves the study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiations as related to wavelength of the radiation. Hence, spectroscopy is the branch of science dealing with the study of interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter. It is the most powerful tool available for the study of atomic and molecular structures, and is used in the analysis of wide range of samples. Optical spectroscopy includes the region on electromagnetic spectrum between 100 Ǻ and 400 m. Hence, the regions of electromagnetic spectrum are thus – far (or vacuum) ultraviolet (10-200 nm), near ultraviolet (200-400 nm), visible (400 – 750 nm), near infrared (0.75 – 2.2 m), mid infrared (2.5 – 50 m), and far infra red (50 – 100 m) region.2, 3

1.1    Ultraviolet – visible spectrophotometry (UV-visible spectrophotometry)

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL USING ZIRCONIUM (IV) OXIDE AND AMMONIUM TRIOXOVANADATE (V)SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL