THE CREATIVE USE OF MUSIC TO SUPPORT LEARNING DISABLED LEARNERS IN AN INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM: A CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL LEARNING PROGRAMME IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY

  1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………. 4
    2. PROBLEM STATEMENT…………………………………………………………………………………. 6
    3. DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………… 7
    4. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………………. 8
    5. RESEARCH DESIGN……………………………………………………………………………………… 9
      1. Philosophical foundation………………………………………………………………………………… 9
      2. Research approach……………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
      3. Literature study and conceptual analysis………………………………………………………. 10
      4. The Delphi method………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
    6. DEFINITION OF TERMS……………………………………………………………………………….. 11
      1. Constructivist coaching…………………………………………………………………………………. 11
      2. Music in a supporting function………………………………………………………………………. 12
      3. Creativity………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
      4. Creativity training…………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
      5. Learning disabilities………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
      6. Continuous Professional Learning……………………………………………………………….. 15
      7. Open and Distance Learning………………………………………………………………………… 16
      8. Primary school learners…………………………………………………………………………………. 16
      9. Music for All…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
    7. THE STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS…………………………………………………………….. 18
    8. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

CHAPTER 2

THE NATURE OF CREATIVITY AND MUSIC

  1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
    1. CREATIVITY………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
      1. The nature of creativity………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
      2. Categories of creativity…………………………………………………………………………………… 24
      3. Operational definition of creativity…………………………………………………………………. 25
      4. The creativity complex……………………………………………………………………………………. 26
        1. The creative person……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
        2. The creative product………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
        3. The creative process……………………………………………………………………………………… 29
        4. The creative press/place………………………………………………………………………………… 30
      5. The value of creativity……………………………………………………………………………………. 30
        1. The value of creativity for the teacher…………………………………………………………….. 30
        2. The benefit of creativity for the teacher in their professional lives…………………… 32
      6. The value of creativity for the learner with learning disabilities……………………… 33
      7. The importance of creativity in music…………………………………………………………….. 34
    2. MUSIC…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35
      1. The nature of music………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
      2. The effect of music on humans…………………………………………………………………….. 39
        1. Physiological…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
        2. Emotional………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
        3. Cognitive……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
        4. Social…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
      3. The value of music in schools……………………………………………………………………….. 44
        1. Multiple Intelligences……………………………………………………………………………………… 44
        2. Musical intelligence……………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
      4. Consequences for teaching………………………………………………………………………….. 48
        1. The therapeutic value of music………………………………………………………………………. 48
        2. Emotional and cognitive enrichment through music………………………………………. 50
        3. Metacognitive advantages of music……………………………………………………………….. 51
  • Ways in which a non-specialist teacher can use music………………………………… 52
    • Listening………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
    • Singing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
    • Rhythmical activities and movement……………………………………………………………… 55
    • Characteristics of class teachers using music in the inclusive classroom…….. 58
    • CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………………. 61

CHAPTER 3

THE CREATIVE USE OF MUSIC IN THE INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM TO SUPPORT

LEARNING-DISABLED LEARNERS

  1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63
    1. THE INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM: SCENARIOS…………………………………………….. 64
      1. Creativity in an inclusive classroom………………………………………………………………. 73
      2. Levels at which music can be used creatively in an inclusive classroom……… 76
        1. First level, the class teacher…………………………………………………………………………… 76
        2. Second level, the music teacher…………………………………………………………………….. 77
        3. Third level, the music therapist………………………………………………………………………. 77
    2. LEARNING DISABILITIES…………………………………………………………………………….. 78
      1. Manifestations of learning disabilities in developmental skills……………………… 78
        1. Motor and sensory motor development………………………………………………………….. 79
        2. Perceptual development………………………………………………………………………………… 81
        3. Memory………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
        4. Attention…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83
        5. Language………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 84
        6. Cognitive development………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
        7. Social competence………………………………………………………………………………………… 86
      2. Manifestations of learning disabilities in academic skills………………………………. 86
        1. Language………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
        2. Mathematical skills………………………………………………………………………………………… 87
  • MUSICAL ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT LEARNING DISABLED LEARNERS 87 3.4.1              Developmental skills……………………………………………………………………………………. 88
    • The development of motor and sensory motor skills………………………………………. 88
    • The development of perceptual skills…………………………………………………………….. 92
    • The development of memory…………………………………………………………………………. 95
    • The development of attention…………………………………………………………………………. 96
    • The development of language……………………………………………………………………….. 97
    • The development of cognitive skills……………………………………………………………….. 99
    • The development of social competence………………………………………………………. 101
    • Academic skills……………………………………………………………………………………………. 102
      • Language: reading, spelling and writing………………………………………………………. 102
      • Mathematical calculations and skills……………………………………………………………. 104
    • CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 105

CHAPTER 4

ASPECTS OF CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL LEARNING AND OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION TO CONSIDER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A

LEARNING PROGRAMME: MUSIC FOR ALL

  1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 106
    1. THE IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOL PERFORMANCE THROUGH CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL LEARNING…………………………………………………………………… 107
      1. School improvement by means of reflexive teaching………………………………… 108
      2. Practical ways to foster reflection………………………………………………………………. 111
        1. Autobiography……………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
        2. Journal………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 111
        3. Observation……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
        4. Reading…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 113
      3. Music in school improvement programmes……………………………………………….. 114
    2. CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL LEARNING………………………………………….. 114
      1. Continuous professional learning: definition……………………………………………. 115
      2. The necessity of continuous professional learning………………………………….. 117
      3. Methods of professional learning……………………………………………………………… 118
      4. Principles for successful professional learning courses…………………………… 119
    3. OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING…………………………………………………………. 124
      1. Definition of open and distance learning………………………………………………….. 125
      2. Characteristics of open and distance learning………………………………………….. 126
        1. Openness………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 126
        2. Flexibility……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 127
        3. The distance education student…………………………………………………………………. 128
        4. Instructional design……………………………………………………………………………………. 129
          1. Content coverage………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
          2. Content presentation…………………………………………………………………………………. 132
          3. Student support…………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
          4. The social aspect………………………………………………………………………………………. 133
          5. Programme review…………………………………………………………………………………….. 133
      3. Constructivism in ODL………………………………………………………………………………. 134
        1. Case studies/scenarios……………………………………………………………………………… 134
        2. Authentic assignments………………………………………………………………………………. 135
        3. Knowledge integration……………………………………………………………………………….. 137
      4. Pedagogical principles underlying successful ODL courses……………………. 138
    4. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………… 140

CHAPTER 5 RESEARCH DESIGN

  1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 141
    1. RESEARCH PROBLEM……………………………………………………………………………. 142
      1. Orientation…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 142
      2. Formulating the research problems…………………………………………………………… 142
        1. Primary research question…………………………………………………………………………. 142
        2. Secondary research questions…………………………………………………………………… 143
    2. AIMS OF THE RESEARCH………………………………………………………………………. 143
      1. Primary research aim…………………………………………………………………………………. 143
      2. Secondary aims…………………………………………………………………………………………. 143
    3. RESEARCH DESIGN……………………………………………………………………………….. 144
      1. Philosophical foundation………………………………………………………………………….. 145
      2. Qualitative paradigm………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
      3. Exploratory character…………………………………………………………………………………. 147
      4. Descriptive disposition………………………………………………………………………………. 148
      5. Contextual nature……………………………………………………………………………………… 148
    4. DATA COLLECTION METHOD…………………………………………………………………. 149
      1. Literature study………………………………………………………………………………………….. 149
      2. Delphi method…………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
        1. Historical roots…………………………………………………………………………………………… 151
        2. Definition……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
        3. Comparison of the original Delphi with the variant used in this study…………. 153
        4. Panel selection………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
        5. Composition of the chosen panel of experts………………………………………………. 156
        6. Data collection procedures………………………………………………………………………… 158
        7. Data analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159
        8. Cover letter………………………………………………………………………………………………… 160
        9. Review instrument……………………………………………………………………………………… 161
      3. Reliability and validity……………………………………………………………………………….. 161
      4. Ethical responsibilities………………………………………………………………………………. 162
    5. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………… 163

CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

  1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
    1. DISCUSSION AND APPLICATION OF THE LITERATURE FINDINGS………. 165
      1. The value of creativity for teachers………………………………………………………………. 165
      2. The value of music in education…………………………………………………………………. 171
      3. The value of music in schools…………………………………………………………………….. 172
      4. The manifestations of learning disabilities in learners………………………………… 176
      5. Examples of music to support learning disabled learners…………………………… 178
      6. Continuous Professional Learning……………………………………………………………… 179
      7. Open and Distance Learning………………………………………………………………………. 180
        1. The distance education student……………………………………………………………………. 180
        2. The development of materials……………………………………………………………………… 180
      8. The compilation of the programme: Music for All…………………………………………. 182
    2. FINDINGS OF THE EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION……………………………………… 188
      1. Results of the Delphi evaluation…………………………………………………………………. 188
        1. Programme………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 189
          1. General………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
          2. Content of the programme…………………………………………………………………………… 194
          3. The use of creativity in the programme………………………………………………………… 194
          4. The use of music in the programme…………………………………………………………….. 196
        2. Practical application…………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
        3. The review instrument………………………………………………………………………………….. 201
        4. Audio-visual material…………………………………………………………………………………… 202
      2. Experts’ suggestions that were not backed in the relevant literature…………… 203
      3. Adapted (revised) programme: Music for All………………………………………………… 204
      4. Summary of findings of the empirical investigation…………………………………….. 208
    3. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 211

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION OF THE RESEARCH

  1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………….. 212
    1. CONCLUSION ON THE FINDINGS OF THE LITERATURE STUDY………… 213
      1. Creativity……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
      2. Music…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
        1. Musical activities that general teachers can use for support in the

classroom………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 226

APPENDIX 1………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 256

APPENDIX 2………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1:      Aims of chapter 2…………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Table 2.2:      Categories of creativity………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Table 3.1:      Aims of chapter 3…………………………………………………………………………………… 63

Table 4.1:      Aims of chapter 4………………………………………………………………………………… 107

Table 4.2:      Principles of CPL………………………………………………………………………………… 123

Table 5.1:      Aims of chapter 5………………………………………………………………………………… 141

Table 5.2:      Comparison between the classical Delphi and the variant used………… 154

Table 5.3:      List of experts………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

Table 6.1:      “Creative” answers to challenges experienced in schools………………….. 166

Table 6.2       Advantages of creative skills in the classroom……………………………………. 168

Table 6.3       The value of creativity for teachers……………………………………………………… 170

Table 6.4       The effect of music on human beings………………………………………………… 171

Table 6.5       Advantages of the creative use of music…………………………………………….. 173

Table 6.6       The manifestations of learning disabilities………………………………………….. 176

Table 6.7       Suggestions of the experts not found in the literature………………………… 203

Table 6.8       Suggestions for the revised programme, Music for All…………………………. 207

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1      Aims of the study…………………………………………………………………………………… 19

Figure 6.1      Intelligences influenced by the musical intelligence………………………….. 173

Figure 7.1      Review of the study…………………………………………………………………………….. 212

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND ORIENTATION TO THE STUDY

                INTRODUCTION

In South Africa in particular, classes are generally very big and teachers often find the diversity that is present among the learners in these large classes very daunting. Although a diversity of learning styles, talents and personalities has always been a key factor in the classroom, teachers in the past also taught within a framework of many commonalities because of the uniformity of culture, age and background of especially white learners in South Africa prior to 1994. Learners with barriers to learning were previously referred to special classes or specialised schools. In the case of many black learners in Africa, those with severe barriers to learning were often not sent to school, and those with less obvious barriers were included by default in general classes (Ainscow 1994:186). Consequently teachers were seldom required to teach specifically learners with physical impairments, such as visually or hearing-impaired learners, or learners with other severe barriers to learning in their classes. Today, however, diversity in the classroom implicates not only learners with specific barriers to learning (academic, emotional and socio-economic), but also learners from diverse cultural, gender, age, skills and language backgrounds (De Villiers 2000:1).

Inclusion, as a response to diversity, refers to attempts by educational authorities, schools and individual teachers to integrate all learners in the teaching-learning process. Since the practical implementation of inclusion is a continuous process, the government and teachers have to consider ongoing and concrete steps designed to ensure sustainable change in the most effective way possible.

Both nationally and internationally there is currently a tendency to educate learners in an inclusive environment. An important document in this regard is the Salamanca Statement, issued in 1994 at Salamanca, Spain, by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) and intended to serve as a directing principle for international education fraternities. In 1996, the National Commission on Special Needs in

Education and Training (NCSNET) was allocated the task of advising the Minister of Education in South Africa on the education of learners with special educational needs. According to this report, an inclusive learning environment is one that:

promotes the full personal, academic and professional development of all learners irrespective of race, class, disability, religion, learning styles and language. It is one which is free from discrimination, segregation, and harassment and which intentionally tries to facilitate an atmosphere of mutual acceptance and respect     It respects the rights of all

learners and enables them to participate fully in a democratic society (NCSNET 1997:vi).

The definition and implications of the above were highlighted in the policy documents that followed, such as the White Paper 6 (2001), which state, inter alia, that:

All learners can learn, but they need support. This principle coincides with that of Outcomes-based Education.

  • The fact that all learners are different in some way and consequently have different learning needs, must be accepted and respected.
  • Conditions at school (educational structures, systems, teaching methods, teachers’ skills) should be such that they can meet the needs of all learners, also those who previously qualified to attend specialised schools.
  • The participation of all learners should be maximised in order to empower them to develop their individual strengths.
  • Teachers who lack the necessary expertise and skills will have to develop them by attending one or more appropriate programmes.