THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WASTE DUMP SITES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADO EKITI NIGERIA

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THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WASTE DUMP SITES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADO EKITI NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Waste generation has been an issue for communities since the beginning of civilization. Waste is generated due to goods and service
production and the utilization of natural resources. There are many barriers to the proper management of waste. In Nigeria, regular
increases in population, industrialization and changes in consumption patterns have complicated solid waste management. The impact of
poor waste management on human health and well-being cannot be overemphasized. Individuals living adjacent to dumpsites are at high
risk due to the potential of waste to pollute water, food, land, vegetation and air. Waste comes from various sources: domestic residences,
offices, institutions, commercial buildings, restaurants, agriculture, construction, and hospitals. The majority of the wastes generated from
these sources ends up in dumpsites. Across many cities in Nigeria, collected wastes are usually burnt outdoors and ashes are poorly
disposed of on-site. This act destroys the organic components and causes the oxidation of metals. The ashes le behind are enriched with
metal, which results in pollution of the surrounding environment. The movement of contaminants from sites where wastes are disposed of
two adjoining ecosystems is complex and involves biological and physico-chemical processes. Open dumpsites could be a source of
microbial and toxic chemical pollution of the soils of the dumpsites. This can also pollute hand dpollutionug wells, posing serious health risks and
leading to the destruction of biodiversity in the environment. Water can percolate through the refuse pile in the dumpsites. This leads to the
formation of leachates that are enriched in nutrients (nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous), heavy metals, and other toxic substances,
including cyanide and dissolved organics. The composition of the wastes influences the concentration of the leachates’ constituents which
may be adsorbed on to the soil during this diffusion. This process creates health hazards, soil and water pollution, and offensive odours,
which increase with an increase in ambient temperature levels. Waste management (i.e., the generation, collection, processing, transport,
and disposal of solid waste) is important for both environmental and public health. Concerns and uncertainties persist about potential
environmental and health effects associated with exposure to emissions from widely adopted waste management facilities (i.e., waste
disposal—landfills and energy recovery—incinerators). In this regard, several studies and a number of reviews are available, leading to the
conclusion that (i) concerns persists over the health effects of different waste management options, despite the lack of univocal evidence on
the health implications of waste-related environmental exposures; and that (ii) emissions from landfills and incinerators could be
associated with some health outcomes. The increasing growth of cities, therefore, has implications for municipal waste management
among other social services required in the urban communities. Data from many of the cities shows inadequacy in urban social services like
shelter, provision of safe drinking water and efficient management of solid wastes. The cities are therefore littered with ‘mountains’ of
rubbish in landfills and open (in most cases illegal) waste dumps which are covered with flies and thus serve as breeding grounds for
rodents and mosquitoes which are carriers of diseases. The study, as tentative as it was, showed that a link exists between the waste
dumpsites and development. Many of the researchers who have undertaken studies in the area of environmental pollution are mainly from
the natural sciences who are interested in studying the nature and the chemical properties of environmental pollution, as well as its effects
on plants and animals (e.g. Yongsi et.al, 2008).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Waste management is a major challenge for cities in developing countries, owing to the increasing stream of waste generated, driven by
population growth, industrialization and urbanization, as well as the financial burden of waste management and lack of technical capacity.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) emanate from industrial and residential activities and generally consist of food, plastic, metal, paper, textile,
glass, etc. Several studies have also lamented the poor waste management practices in Nigeria, dominated mostly by open waste disposal
that consequently cause a public nuisance, generate foul odour, and expose the populace and environment to pollution and potential
health impacts. Considering the growing population and urban sprawl in the city, this negative trend is expected to continue if le
unchecked.

1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this study is to examine the environmental impact of waste dumpsites on the development of Ado Ekiti. Other general
objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the pattern of waste disposal in Ado Ekiti.
  2. To examine the public perception of the dumpsite location and operational activities.
  3. To examine the environmental impact of waste dumpsites on the development of Ado Ekiti.
  4. To examine the factors that contributes to increased dumpsite impact on the environment.
  5. To examine the relationship between access to waste dump site and environmental sustainability.
  6. To examine the Suitable waste management practice involved or carried out in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. To examine the pattern of waste disposal in Ado Ekiti.
  2. To examine the public perception of the dumpsite location and operational activities.
  3. To examine the environmental impact of waste dumpsites on the development of Ado Ekiti.
  4. To examine the factors that contributes to increased dumpsite impact on the environment.
  5. To examine the relationship between access to waste dump site and environmental sustainability.
  6. To examine the Suitable waste management practice involved or carried out in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H0: There is no impact of waste dumpsites utilized for waste management activities on environmental sustainability.
H1: There is a significant impact of waste dumpsites utilized for waste management activities on environmental sustainability

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The general public, government and waste management agencies stand to benefit from this study. Empirically, the outcome of this research
will enable the general public and government to grasp deeply the hazardous effect of reckless disposal of waste along every nook and
cranny of the nation and factors that impede/hamper the implementation of waste management in Ekiti State. Also, this study will equally
strengthen government efforts towards the release of funds for waste evacuations and prompt payment of salaries to employees of these
various agencies having vividly understood the import of poor waste management via extensive work done on this write-up. Theoretically,
this study will make a useful contribution in the field of management as it will serve as another source of knowledge in the management of
waste and material resources of the various establishments in Nigeria.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is based on the environmental impacts of waste dumpsites on the development of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or
information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on
the time devoted for the research work

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WASTE DUMP SITES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADO EKITI NIGERIA

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WASTE DUMP SITES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADO EKITI NIGERIA