1.1 Background to the Study
Advertising is one of the four promotional tools companies use to direct persuasive communications to consumers or buyer and the general public. Advertising policy constitute such an important strategy in the marketing programme of the companies that its negligence could spell doom for companies. Generally speaking, these objectives cannot be actualized if the manufactured products are not bought to the knowledge of the consuming public. If the consumers and the general public are not informed and educated on the needs and wants some projects could satisfy, they will definitely stay clear of the products. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a large number of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action (Bovee and Aren, 1992, Jefkins, 1998, White 2000, Okorie,2010).
According to Arens (2002:7), advertising is the structured and composed non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually pervasive in nature, about products by identified sponsors through various media. Advertising present skills of copywriting, illustration, layout, typography, scripturing, and video-making based on them or copy platform to win converts to a product, services or idea.
One peculiar feature of all advertisement is the identification of the sponsors. This is to ensure that somebody takes responsibility for whatever happens as a result of the exposure to the advertisements. An advertising medium is any paid means used to present an advertisement to its target audience. The media include radio, television and prints, the choice and use of media to achieve maximum results at minimum cost will make the advertising cost effective.
The medium used in the presentation of advertising is another essential variable that will affect the message. The advertising must make a conscious attempt at identifying severability, both geographically and inters of audience quality or type. To a large extent, the advertising message plays a dominant role in informing and motivating consumer buying action, other variables such as the consumers, social and preference group, literacy level, and of course, the elements of the marketing mix namely: product, price, distribution channels, and personal selling are also factors that determine the purchase behaviour of the prospect/consumers.
Beer consumption in Akwa Ibom State is very rampant and if you go anywhere in all regions, you will be sure to see beer of different types, shapes and quality welcoming you in Akwa Ibom love to gather and have a beer while engaging in social activities. Champion beer has been in market for many years. Today the brewery industries have become a competitive market with various brands of beer like Champion Harp Star, 33, Gulder, Heniken, Dubic etc. thus there is need for the use of advertising to create awareness and to promote sales of that particular product or services. There are several ad messages in the print media, but the issue is ‘do all these advert influence the consumer decision?’ if advertisement does not create any positive change in consumers decision all the resources such as money, media, message etc will become wasted. Therefore, it is important to find out to what extent advertisement influences a consumer in purchasing products of champion breweries.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Advertising is costly; often its effects are uncertain and a times it takes a while before it makes any impact on consumer’s choice. It is for these reasons that many companies like champion breweries think it appropriate to occasionally reduce expenses on product advertising or stop it.
Conversely, some companies at times consider it unnecessary to advertise when their brands are already doing great without advertisement. Such behaviour implicitly fails to consider the fact that advertising is not just a current expense or more exercise but an investment. Also some companies do choose some wrong ad ineffective media to execute the advertisement and also contract more than one advertising agency at any given time. This makes it difficult to spend some reasonable money on advertising. This is now a common feature. Champion breweries for instance, one hardly hears of advert concerning champion beer ad this should be affectively the behaviour of customers towards their products. (Champion Beer).
Therefore, the problem statement of this research is a critical examination of champion brewery’s advertising policies and their impact on the consumer behaviour.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of product advertising on consumer behaviour. Specific objectives include:
To determine the effect of product advertising message on consumer brand choice
To assess the relationship between the frequency of products advertisement and consumer brand choice.
To determine the impact of advertising media type on consumer brand choice
1.4 Research Questions
How does product advertising message influences consumer brand choice?
To what extent does frequency of adverts influences consumer brand choice?
What is the impact of advertising media type on consumer brand choice?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
H01 There is no significant effect of product advertising messages on consumer brand choice
H02 There is no significant relationship between frequency of product advertising and consumer brand choice
H03 There is no significant effect of product advertising media type on consumer brand choice.
1.6 Significance of the Study
A major objectives of many advertisers is to produce brand loyalty, which come directly from the habit of repurchasing. However, achieving brand quality today is more difficult than before due to increased sophistication of consumers and stiff competition from other existing brands as well as the different media of advertising. Many companies do not understand the fact that there is a product life cycle that serves as yardstick for measuring the performance and sustainability of products in the market place. Rather, they think that putting a product in the market will automatically cause consumers to buy. They also do not consider that there are product element that influence consumers patronage. This is due to the consideration that undertaking a thorough research before embarking on the entire exercise will be capital intensive and could add to cost.
In Nigeria, a number of beer brands are exposed to the potential consumers through advertising messages and champion beer is one of the brands that have succeeded in becoming a household name among consumers. However it is pertinent to ascertain whether advertisement of this brand plays a major role in influencing consumers choice of brand or whether there are other factors that are responsible for influencing consumers choice of the brand.
Considering this situation, the study is necessary because:
It will help the company’s performance. To other business organisation, this study will disclose some important functions of advertising to company’s ad organisation. It will further reveal some unique qualities of advertising and its objectives to companies and organisation.
Advertising agents will benefit from the information content of the study.
Other researchers and academicians will benefit from the information content of the study.
The researcher is an advertising practitioner, hence, embarking on this work will increase his knowledge of media planning. Above all, this study is designed in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of a Bachelor degree of the department of marketing, Akwa Ibom State University, Obio Akpa Campus.
1.7 Scope of the Study
As much as the research would have wanted to increase the range of this study outside Uyo urban, her demanding deadline makes it impossible. The boundaries of Uyo urban as defined by Uyo Capital City Development Authority (UCCDA) stretches from Ikot Ekpene road to Itam peace column, from Aka road to Udo Udoma Avenue, from Wellington Bassey way to Government House, from Nwaniba circus to University of Uyo permanent site and Oron road to Nsikak Eduouk Ring road. Respondents were drawn from these areas based on the conviction that urban and semi-urban residents with moderate socio-economic standing can afford to drink beer.
Also, this study is restricted to the influence of product advertisement of Champion beer on the consumer’s choice. It does not however invalidate any generalization about the influence of content, taste, quality and other element on the influence of this kind though recognised, remained outside the scope of this study and was therefore not examined.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
This research study is limited to Uyo Local Government where Champion Breweries is located and there were some challenges that the researcher confronted while carrying this study, thus reducing the largeness of this work. Some of the challenges confronted were:
TIME: The researcher is time constrained as the time space at disposal to carry out the research is limited to only one semester.
COST: Due to the ailing economic situation now in the state and the nature of this study that demands much costs than what the researcher could afford. The scope of the study was almost too narrowed to enable the researcher have a sample that could effectively study bearing in mind cost considerations and the financial resources available to her as a student.
ATTITUDE OF RESPONDENTS: The respondents showed great indifference in giving information about themselves and this was not encouraging while others gave wrong information for reasons best known to them.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Advertising Media: these are television, radio prints by which champion breweries advertise its champion beer drinks.
Advertising messages: This is an underlying message or point that the consumer should get up seeing the advert.
Advertising: This is a communication medium whose aim is to create the awareness of the product in other to influence the buying behaviour of the consumers.
Brand choice: the purchase of champion beer instead of all other deer drinks.
Brand loyalty: The natural tendency to stick to a particular brand.
Brand: Champion beer, or any other beer drinks.
Consumer behaviour: this refers to how individual customers or groups select, buy, use dispose ideas, goods and services to satisfy their needs and wants.
Consumer: A person who satisfies his/her want by using a product.
Frequency of Adverts/Advertising Frequency: This is how often a champion beer consumer is exposed to champion beer adverts.
Influence: The power of the advertisement to affect consumers behaviour or choice through advertising.
Product advertising: This is the art of building and maintaining product awareness with potential buyers.