1.1       Background to the study

Code-switching is the use of more than one language, variety, or style by a speaker within an utterance or discourse, or between different interlocutors or situations (Romaine, 1992:110).  In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation (Richard, 2005). However, Wardhaugh (2012: 103), states that code mixing occurs when a conversant use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance. It means that the conversant just changes some of the elements in their utterance. Code mixing takes place without a change of topic and can involve various levels of language, e.g., morphology and lexical items.

Code-mixing and code-switching are important aspects of sociolinguistics because of their use and status in the society. The continued exploration of various facets of code change is therefore not a surprise, as it has more than just (socio) linguistic, anthropological and psychological implications. To the extent that the way people talk is the expression of their personal, social, cultural and other identities, it is not an exaggeration to say that it actually affects the majority of the world’s population and, although has often been viewed as a stigmatized form of bilingual discourse, there is no doubt that learning more about the underlying rules of code-switching can only contribute to more awareness among speakers of poles apart (Adetuyi and Jegede, 2016).

Different reasons have been put forward by various authors and researchers to explain why people mix code and code switch. It is obvious that they have negative and positive effects on the use of the language. It then becomes necessary that these concepts related to human society and our educational system receive sufficient attention to be known and also used effectively where it is needed. In a society where people speak more than one language, there is usually one language naturally influenced by others. Some of the effects of multilingualism are code mixing and code change, bilingualism, diglossia, and so on. When a speaker comes into contact with two or more languages, he can start using the languages ​​together, even if it is not necessarily with equal competence. However, these languages ​​influence each other and often lead to code mixing and code switching (Kuntze, 2000). A typical context showing that speakers’ mix or switch codes can be found in Jenifa Diary. However, Jenifa’s Diary is a Nigerian television comedy series, created by Funke Akindele. The series is part of the Jenifa franchise, based on a naive and funny character of the same name. Jenifa’s Dairy has over 11 (possibly going to 13) seasons and is currently active and ongoing (Ikeke, Nkem, 2017). This series tells a story of a native village girl who desperately wants to get out of her ratchet way of life. In her desperation she leaves her village and goes to the city.