ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT BREEDS OF LAND SNAIL (White-skinned and Black-skinned Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria) IN CALABAR METROPOLIS 

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ABSTRACT

Proximate, mineral and vitamin analysis were carried out on three land snails (white skinned, black skinned and limicolaria species) for nutritional assessment using their muscular foot tissues. The mean of moisture ranged from 8.50 ± 0.10% in limicolaria to 10.40 ± 0.05% in white skinned. Crude fibre was not detected in any of the species. Crude fat of 1.23 ± 0.25 in limicolaria to 2.82 ± 0.25% in white skinned were obtained. Ash content Values as low as 1.50±0.50 in limicolaria to 2.50 ± 2.25% in white skinned were obtained. Crude protein ranged from 7.41± 0.02 in white skinned to 8.37 ± 0.02% in black skinned which had the highest value. Carbohydrate ranged from 60.40 ± 2.26% to 67.20 ± 0.67%. Mineral analysis of the snail species revealed relatively high amount of minerals in the white skinned compared to the black skinned and limicolaria species. Calcium values of 4.44 ± 0.02 in limicolaria spp to 6.77 ± 0.02mg /100g in White skinned were obtained. Magnesium ranged from 22.77± 0.01 in limicolaria to 26.44± 0.04 mg/100g in black skinned and Iron content ranged from 1.97 ± 0.01 in limicolaria to 2.44 ± 0.01mg/ 100g in white skinned with low potassium content of 79.50±0.05 in limicolaria species to 97.88 ± 0.02mg/100g in white skinned. Zinc ranged from 4.66 ± 0.01 in Black skinned to 5.66 ± 0.02 in white skinned.

Vitamin profile in white skinned were 6.25 ± 0.006%, 0.66 ± 0.006%, 0.025 ± 0.001% and 0.048 ± 0.001% for vitamin A, E, K and D respectively. While the black skinned was 8.37 ± 0.006%, 0.55 ± 0.006%, 0.035 ± 0.001% and 0.035 ± 0.001% for vitamin A, E, K and D respectively. The limicolaria ranged from 7.45 ± 0.006%, 0.49 ± 0.006%, 0.038 ± 0.001% and 0.037 ± 0,001%. This results therefore, encourages increase in production and consumption of snail species hence snail could complement the required trace minor elements needed for proper growth and development in human.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

CERTIFICATION      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii         

DEDICATION           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii        

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv        

ABSTRACT   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii       

LIST TABLES            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

LIST OF FIGURES   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION       

1.1 Background of study        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2 Justification of the study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.3 Aim of study         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.4 Objective of study                        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW     

2.1 Land snail             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.2 Nutritional value of snail meat      –           –           –           –           –           –           8

2.3 Uses of snail meat             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.4 Economic importance of land snail           –           –           –           –           –           14

2.5 White skinned and black skinned (Archachatina marginata)       –           –           16

2.5.1 Limicolaria snail –           –           –           –           –           –           –           21

2.6 Features of land snails      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

2.7 Factors affecting snail meat          –           –           –           –           –           –           25

2.8 Growth of snails   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

2.9 Food and feeding pattern of snails           –           –           –           –           –           27

2.10 Disease    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28

2.11 Climatic conditions and soil characteristics        –           –           –           –           29

2.12 The Nature of snail nutrition       –           –           –           –           –           –           30

2.13 Health benefit of snail    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS  

3.1 Collection of samples                    –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.2 Preparation of samples      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

3.3 Proximate Analysis Procedure      –           –           –           –           –           –           38

3.3.1 Moisture determination using oven method procedure –           –           –          38

3.3.2 Determination of ash content    –           –           –           –           –           –           38

3.3.3 Determination crude fibre          –           –           –           –           –           –           39       

3.3.4 Determination of fat      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

3.3.5 Determination of protein           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

3.3.6 Determination of carbohydrates            –           –           –           –           –           –         41

3.4 Mineral content determination      –           –           –           –           –           –           41

3.5 Vitamin determination –        –         –        –        –       –       –       –        –       –      42

3.5.1 Vitamin A and E assays             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

3.5. 2 Vitamin K assays          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

3.5.3 Vitamin D assays           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

3.6 Data analysis         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION      

4.1 Proximate composition of different breeds of land snail             –           –           –           44       

4.2 Mineral composition of the land snail species     –           –           –           –           47

4.3 Vitamin profiles    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION       

5.1 Conclusion            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           50

5.2 Recommendation  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           50

REFERENCES          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

APPENDIX    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           55