The purpose of this study is to evaluate the competencies of the 21st century librarians of the Polytechnic of the North Central States of Nigeria. This study was guided by five (5) research questions.  The study adopted the descriptive survey research design with a population of  fifty one librarians and thirty-four library officers from the various Polytechnic libraries in the North Central States.  Data were collected from this population using questionnaire titled Library Services Competencies Questionnaire (LSCQ) and by oral interview.  The questionnaire were divided into seven (7) sections of ABCDEFG.  The eighty-five respondents completed and returned the questionnaire correctly representing 100% response rate.  Mean, standard deviation frequencies and percentages were used to analyse the five research questions.  The result of the study reveals that libraries in the Polytechnic libraries are not ICT competent.  Major problems hindering their acquisition of ICT competencies include: lack of budgetary provision for training, lack of ICT equipments such as computers and internet facilities, lack of training officers in the field of librarianship in ICT and inadequate practical classes in library schools.  Recommendations on how to acquire these competencies were made.  These include: provision of funds for training librarians periodically through workshops, seminars and conferences.  The need for librarians to use their personal monies to attend conferences in order to fit into the present 21st century librarianship was also recommended.


Title Page    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ii

Approval page..     ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        .     .   iii

Certification..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        .    .    iv

Dedication..          ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        .    .     v

Acknowledgement..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        vi      

Abstract      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        .    .   vii      

Table of Contents ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..       viii     

Chapter One: Introduction

        Background of the Study ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..         1     

        Statement of problem      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..         5     

        Objectives of the Study    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..         6     

        Significance of the Study ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..         7     

        Scope and Limitation..     ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..         8     

        Research Questions..       ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..         8     

Chapter Two: Literature Review

        An Overview of 21st Century Library Services..       ..        ..        . 9    

        Trends in Polytechnic Libraries ..       ..        ..        ..        ..    ..   10

        Competencies of Librarians in the 21st Century..   ..        ..    ..   12   

        Qualities Services in Libraries ..          ..        ..        ..        ..  ..  .  14

        Essential Competencies needed by Librarians        ..        ..  ..  .  15

       Methods of Acquisition of needed competencies by Librarians …18

       Challenges that threaten library skills Acquisition..         ..        ..19   

       Strategies for overcoming the challenges of acquiring

       Needed Competencies..     ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..20   

       Review of Empirical Literature    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..21   

       Summary of Literature Review   ..        ..        ..        ..        ..  ..      28   

Chapter Three: Research Methodology    

        Research Design    ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ….   .  30

        Area of Study         ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        30

        Population of the Study   ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        30

        Sample and Sampling Techniques..    ..        ..        ..        ..        31

        Instrument for Data Collection..         ..        ..        ..        ..        31

        Questionnaire..      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        31

        Interview..     ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        32

        Validation of the Instruments..  ..        ..        ..        ..        ..  ..   .32

        Reliability of the Instruments    ..        ..        ..        ..        ….. ..  32

        Administration of the Instrument       ..        ..        ..        ..        32

        Methods of Data Analysis  ..      ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        33

Chapter Four : Presentation and analysis of Data ..    ..        …. ..   34

CHAPTER Five: Discussion of Findings, Implication, conclusion

and Recommendations

        Discussion of findings ..  ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        41

        Conclusion ..          ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        44

        Implication of  the study ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        45

        Recommendations ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        46

        Suggestions for further studies ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        47

        Limitations ..          ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        47    

        References .. ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        …       48

        Appendix I (Questionnaires) ..   ..        ..        ..        ..        ..        53



BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                                                                        

      Polytechnic education was formally established in Nigeria with the promulgation of Decree 33 of 1979. The main purpose of the polytechnic education is to produce middle level technological manpower for the nation economy. Polytechnic education is therefore part of the technical education programme, which aims at providing practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge to their products. This system of education according to Attama (2007) was a shift from the traditional university type of education, which is more or less purely theoretical.  He said the specific aims and objectives for the establishment of polytechnics include:

[a] The production of high level and middle manpower as appropriate in areas necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development of the country.

[b] The identification and solution of the technological problems and the needs of the industry.

[c] The production of technicians and technologists for direct employment in industries.

Polytechnic education was therefore introduced based on the realization that the desire for a better condition of living of the people and the overall development is very much dependent on the level of acquisition of skills and basic scientific knowledge. Onuh (1997) cited in Attama (2007)  observed that the nation’s progress and prosperity will be determined not by wishful thinking or pious hopes but by the people’s ability to understand and take optimum advantages of the potentialities for continued advances resulting from a dynamic and progressive technology. Attama [2007] reiterated this when he said that the possession of this ability and understanding requires sound operations of economy as well as theoretical and practical knowledge of technology.

Amongst the first five Federal Polytechnics established in Nigeria by the Federal Government, two were located in the North Central states of Nigeria.  These are Federal Polytechnic, Idah located in the ancient town of the then Benue State, but now Kogi State and the Federal Polytechnic, Bida in Niger State. Realizing the objectives and goals for which these institutions were established, some state governments follow the foot steps of the Federal Government to establish State Polytechnics to produce high level and middle manpower for her industries. These states within the North Central States are Plateau State with Plateau State Polytechnic, Barikin Ladi, Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, Kogi State, Benue State Polytechnic, Ugbokolo, Benue State and Nasarawa State Polytechnic, Lafia, Nasarawa State. Federal Government later established more Federal Polytechnics in the country, one of which is Federal Polytechnic, Nasarawa , Nasarawa State.

                The aims and objectives of the polytechnic education are achieved through teaching, research and the dissemination of existing and new information, the accomplishment of which can only be achieved through a functional library.  Polytechnic libraries play vital role in the attainment of these objectives. Libraries should therefore be seen as integral part of polytechnic education. Re-affirming the importance of libraries in an education system, Aguolu (1989) stated thus:

          We cannot expect an excellent academic programme in any    educational institution without the support of well – equipped libraries. Libraries in schools, colleges of education, Polytechnics and universities are not adjunct to their institution but an integral part of them.  They are the hub from which all intellectual  activities should radiate to all academic and  research programmes.

          Polytechnic libraries are therefore an important organ in polytechnic education. The academic health, intellectual vitality and the effectiveness in the provision of these technological skills and basic scientific knowledge depends largely upon the state of the library. Fabunmi (2004) described library as the engine room and power house where information are collected, processed, stored and retrieved for use by users.

          The basic need for the establishment of libraries in the polytechnics like any other academic libraries is to partner with the institution in attaining the objectives for which they were set to achieve.   According to Ajibero (1992) the place of libraries in Polytechnics are very high because they provide information not only for education but for scientific and technical progress as a whole through the use of information both inside and outside the Polytechnic.  He concluded that the Polytechnic is as good as its library.  This comment implies that any Polytechnic without a functional library is as good as saying it is not a Polytechnic. The library objectives therefore must be in congruence with the polytechnic objectives. These objectives are fulfilled by the library through the provision of adequate and quality information service to the users. 

          The responsibility for the acquisition of relevant information sources, storage, processing and provision of effective services rest with the librarians and in some cases on the library officers.  The librarians are those who must have obtained at least a first degree in Library and Information Science and accepted by the Librarians Registration Council through Decree 12 of 1995 and by law, entitled to practice for all purposes as a librarian in the country.  The library officers who at times carry out these functions are those who must have obtained a Diploma or Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) in Library and Information Science from any library school.

          All services provided in the libraries are user centred. Udoka (2000) also stressed that entire human and material resources in the library are put in place for the purpose of providing effective services to the users. Quality library  services are services that are capable of providing the right information to users within a short period of time. Fabunmi (2004) explains quality services as information services to users that are timely in delivery, meet users needs, easy to understand and use.

Libraries are now being supplemented and transformed with the introduction of Information Communication and Technology (ICT).  The introduction of Information, Communication and Technology has brought about the globalization of information Globalization of information is characterized by the breaking down of artificial barriers to the free flow of information, knowledge, services and people across national boundaries.  This development has brought about a shift from traditional libraries with site – specific collections to virtual or digital libraries where information and knowledge have no geographical boundaries.  According to Omekwu (2008) globalization has brought a situation where information sources are no longer localized or limited by time and space but dynamic, digital and seamless.  The implication of this development he argued are:

  • Libraries are now situated in cyberspace.
  • Library services are no longer constrained by time of opening and closing hours.
  • Library users can access services in libraries beyond their own, beyond their country and continent.
  • The virtuality of information resources means that millions of users can access resources at the same time.

Today, the philosophy of ownership of information has therefore been challenged by a new philosophy of access to information thus, changing the ways librarians provide information to their users.

Users needs have also changed in line with the modern demands.  Various services are now been requested and offered to patrons without necessary seeing them.  This has created a faceless type of readers.  Virtual reference are also been used to support distance education in institution.  Users can also ask various current information on a particular subject within a limited space of time.  These developments invariably mean more challenges on the part of the librarians as custodian and mediators who have the responsibility for the acquisition of relevant information resources, storage, processing and making them available to the users in the best way to achieve the aim and objectives.  Providing these services in this era of change is dependent on the librarians’ level of competencies.

 Competencies according to Omekwu (2003) relate to the librarian’s knowledge of information sources, access, technology, management and the ability to use this knowledge as a basis for providing the highest-level quality information services to their users.  He stated further that competenticies relates to skills, attitudes and values that enable a practitioner to work efficiently, be a good  communicator, focus  on continuing education or learning throughout their careers, demonstrate the value added nature of the contributions and remain flexible and positive in an ever-changing environment. Murphy (1999), Corbin (1993) and Mohmood (2003) explained competencies in terms of skill oriented behaviours and observable actions measured against qualitative standards. Competency according to them is judged on whether or not learned, mental and physical tasks can be performed.  Acquisition of competencies according to Onwubiko (2007) is important because, they help the library profession to adapt and survive in a rapidly changing academic environment. It is therefore imperative to have a list of competencies in Polytechnic libraries that will help in the survival and promotion of the academic libraries and librarians. The librarian’s competencies therefore determine the quality of service provided to readers thus, it is a gateway to providing quality library services.