Evaluation of Sesame Mutant Lines Induced by Gamma Radiation to Enhance Genetic Traits



The generation, assessment, and selection of mutants harboring desirable traits have long contributed to the genetic variability harnessed in breeding programs for various crops. In this study, eleven mutant lines of sesame were developed via induced gamma irradiation and subsequently evaluated in the M4 generation. The evaluation encompassed a comparison with three parental varieties, namely NCRIBEN 04E (check-1), NCRIBEN 01M (check-2), and NCRIBEN 03L (check-3). Employing a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates, both mutant lines and their respective controls were examined according to established protocols.

Results regarding vegetative characteristics unveiled that mutant lines ML-6 and ML-8 displayed the highest plant heights at maturity, reaching significance at the 5% level. Similarly, ML-7 exhibited the greatest number of branches per plant. Notably, there were no noteworthy differences (P > 0.05) in the time taken to achieve 50% flowering. Regarding capsule production, ML-2, ML-3, ML-7, and ML-8 yielded greater quantities than their respective controls, showcasing 77.30, 105.33, 151.00, and 163.00 capsules per plant, respectively.

Among the mutants, ML-2 (2-3 capsules per leaf axil), ML-6 (1-2 capsules per leaf axil), ML-9 (1-2 capsules per leaf axil), ML-10 (2-3 capsules per leaf axil), and ML-11 (1-3 capsules per leaf axil) exhibited improved capsule characteristics. All M4 mutants exhibited favorable pollen viabilities exceeding 80%, with the highest pollen germinability being noted at a 20% sucrose concentration. These mutants shared suboblate pollen shapes featuring 10-13 colpi.

Elevated oil contents were prominent in ML-2 (40.32%) and ML-10 (40.05%), surpassing their corresponding control groups. Mutants stemming from Check-1 (ML-1, ML-2, ML-3) and Check-2 (ML-4, ML-5, ML-6, ML-7) demonstrated substantial enhancements in seed protein content, with ML-7 (32.83%) exhibiting the highest increment. Similarly, all mutants exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture contents except ML-8 (3.38%). ML-10 recorded the highest tannin content at 0.303%, while the least oxalate and phytate contents were found in ML-1 (2.545%) and Check-2 (0.532%), respectively. Mutants from check-1 and check-3 exhibited heightened free fatty acid levels except for ML-8 (1.13%).

Analysis of oil composition indicated that the physical properties of oil from both mutant lines and controls met the acceptable criteria set by Codex. The array of variations observed in morphological attributes, yield, seed nutritional composition, and oil properties within the M4 lines reflects the genetic diversity arising from gamma irradiation. This diversity hints at potential genetic enhancements for sesame cultivation. Mutant lines exhibiting robust pollen viability hold promise as male parents in controlled pollination strategies to amplify sesame productivity and foster its further development.

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