IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE

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IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

A lot of public latrine poses a very serious problem to the people of Awka and also to other places across the country. The problem of open
defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Awka and
Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live
without proper sanitation in Awka and these people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or
fear. Two hypothesis were formulated? To test the relationship between outbreak of disease and public latrine and the need for provision of
latrine in public places. Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources including questionnaire survey of the
residents in Awka. From the analysis, it was found out that enough latrine are not provided in public places like markets, public compounds
and even hostels thereby making the least provided to be overused and uncared for. The tests result shows that good latrine and the quality
of life of the residents are significantly related. The recommendations made in the study include adequate provision of public toilets and
toilets facilities as well as financing and maintenance of toilet facilities. It is hoped that the suggested measures of this study will go along
way to improving the life residents in Awka territory

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

A pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.
They use either no water or one to three liters per flush with pour-flush pit
latrines. When properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human feces in the
environment from open defecation
causes of infectious diarrhea and intestinal worm infections.
Infectious diarrhea resulted in about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old in
2011 and 250 million lost school days. Pit toilets are the lowest cost method of separating feces from people.
A pit toilet generally consists of three major parts: a hole in the ground, a slab or floor with a small hole, and a shelter. The shelter is often
known as an outhouse. The pit is typically at least 3 meters (10 feet) deep and 1 m (3.2 feet) across.
recommends they be built a reasonable
distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell. The distance from ground water and surface water should be as large as
possible to decrease the risk of ground water pollution Groundwater_pollution). The hole in the slab should
not be larger than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access
by flies. This may require the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. When the pit fills to within 0.5 meters (1.6 feet) of the
top, it should be either emptied or a new pit constructed and the shelter moved or re-built at the new location. The management of
the fecal sludge removed from the pit is complicated. There are both environment and health
risks if not done properly.
A lot of public toilets poses very serious problem to the people of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state and also to other places across
the country. The problem of open defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been
difficult to address in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state and Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets
both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Udi and these people have to decide on
daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or fear.
Pit latrines may or may not be an enjoyable experience to use. Problems may occur when the pit latrine is shared by too many people, is not
cleaned daily and not emptied when the pit is full. In such cases, flies and odour can be a massive nuisance. Also, pit latrines are usually
dark places which are difficult to keep clean. Often, hand washing facilities are missing. For these reasons, shared pit latrines can be quite
uncomfortable to use in developing countries. Also, there might be cultural preferences for open defecation and these may be difficult to
overcome with unattractive toilet designs.
Statement of the problem
Pit toilets are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries and their use is on the rise as countries
aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern however that the discharges of chemical
and microbial contaminant from pit toilets to underground water may negatively affect human health.

Significance of the study

The study aims to quantify the impact of pit toilet on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state, interpret findings, analyze
implications, and convey high level results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better environment of Udi
residents and other communities where pit toilets trend in Nigeria.
Objectives of the study
The goals of this study are:

  1. To systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.
  2. To evaluate public pit toilets siting standard.
  3. To identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and the consequences of public pit toilets on citizens of Nigeria.

Limitations of the study

The study was carried out to investigate the impact of public pit toilet system in Enugu state,Udi Local Government Area to be precise. The
study is limited to Udi Local Government Area in Enugu state because of her representative nature of pit toilets in Nigeria, proximity to the
researcher, time and financial constraints.
Scope of the study
This study is on the impact of public pit toilet system in Enugu state with particular emphasis on its associated problems in Udi Local
Government Area of Enugu state as the case study.

IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE

IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE